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Table 3 Hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis of the relation of basic, underlying, and proximal factors with CAS

From: Concurrent anemia and stunting in young children: prevalence, dietary and non-dietary associated factors

Variables Model-1a Model-2b Model-3c
AOR (95%CI) P* AOR (95%CI) P* AOR (95%CI) P*
Residence place Urban Reference < 0.001     
Rural 1.29 (1.18–1.41)     
Household wealth category Low 1.91 (1.53–2.39) < 0.001     
Middle 1.10 (0.84–1.44) 0.480     
High Reference      
Caregiver education No education 2.14 (1.33–3.44) < 0.001     
Primary 2.38 (1.47–3.86) < 0.001     
Secondary+ Reference      
Water source Unimproved    1.08 (0.81–1.45) 0.606   
Improved    Reference   
Toilet facility Unimproved    0.96 (0.58–1.57) 0.857   
Improved    Reference   
Child sex Girl      Reference 0.015
Boy      1.25 (1.04–1.50)
Child age < 12 months      Reference < 0.001
12–23 months      1.65 (1.57–1.73)
Birth size Large      Reference  
Average      1.21 (0.90–1.40) 0.317
Small      1.99 (1.58–2.51) < 0.001
Infectiond No      Reference 0.048
Yes      1.14 (1.00–1.30)
Vitamin A supplement No      1.19 (1.06–1.33) 0.003
Yes      Reference
VARFV No      1.15 (1.04–1.27) 0.006
Yes      Reference
OFV No      1.25 (0.90–1.73) 0.178
Yes      Reference
Meat No      1.55 (1.17–2.05) 0.002
Yes      Reference
Milk No      1.14 (0.90–1.44) 0.276
Yes      Reference
Legumes No      1.38 (1.05–1.81) 0.021
Yes      Reference
MDDe No      1.29 (0.93–1.78) 0.122
Yes      Reference
MMFf No      1.22 (1.04–1.37) 0.020
Yes      Reference
  1. CAS concurrent anemia and stunting, AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, VARFV vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables, OFV other fruits and vegetables
  2. aModel-1: adjusted for residence place, wealth category and caregiver’s education status
  3. bModel-2: adjusted for residence place, wealth category, caregiver’s education and all variables shown under Model-2
  4. cModel-3: adjusted for residence place, wealth category, caregiver’s education, and all variables shown under Model-3
  5. d = Infection defined by history of cough, diarrhea, or fever in the last 2 weeks (yes, any one of the three conditions)
  6. e = Minimum dietary diversity defined as, according to the WHO criteria, eating from 4 or more of the 7 food groups
  7. f = Minimum meal frequency defined as, according to the WHO criteria, when a child ate at least 3 and 4 times a day for breastfeeding and none-breastfeeding, respectively
  8. *P-value significant when < 0.05