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Table 2 Bivariate analysis of the relation of basic, underlying, and proximal factors with CAS (Weighted N = 2902)

From: Concurrent anemia and stunting in young children: prevalence, dietary and non-dietary associated factors

Variables Weighted frequency (%) CAS Prevalence (95% CI) P-value*
Basic factors
 Residence place Urban 11.9 16.1 (12.0–20.2) 0.001
Rural 88.1 25.0 (23.3–26.7)
 Region (state) Pastoral 6.4 22.6 (16.2–29.1) 0.606
Agrarian 93.6 24.4 (22.8–26.1)
 Wealth category Low 44.1 31.7 (26.4–37.1) < 0.001
Middle 22.5 16.4 (11.0–21.9)
High 33.4 14.5 (11.0–17.9)
 Caregivers education No 61.0 23.4 (19.6–27.2) < 0.001
Primary 30.6 18.5 (14.1–22.9)
Secondary+ 8.4 13.5 (6.4–20.5)
Underlying factors
 Water source type Not improved 50.1 22.9 (19.1–26.8) 0.065
Improved 49.9 17.9 (14.1–21.7)
 Toilet facility type Not improved 90.2 21.1 (18.2–24.1) 0.001
Improved 9.8 17.2 (10.3–24.1)
Proximal factors
 Child sex Boy 46.9 21.2 (17.2–25.2) 0.033
Girl 53.1 20.1 (16.5–23.8)
 Child age < 12 months 34.9 12.1 (8.5–15.7) < 0.001
12–23 months 65.1 25.4 (21.8–29.1)
 Birth size Small 27.0 29.7 (23.7–35.8) < 0.001
Average 40.7 19.1 (15.1–23.2)
Large 32.3 15.3 (11.0–19.5)
 Infection historya No 62.4 20.0 (16.6–23.4) 0.031
Yes 37.6 21.6 (17.2–25.9)
 Breastfeeding duration < 12 months 38.4 22.1 (18.5–25.7) 0.692
12–23 monhs 61.6 25.4 (21.8–29.1)
 Early breastfeeding initiation No 10.9 22.4 (14.0–30.9) 0.533
Yes 89.1 20.4 (17.6–23.2)
 Deworming No 90.8 20.5 (17.7–23.3) 0.802
Yes 9.2 22.0 (12.2–31.8)
 Vitamin A supplement No 56.4 18.0 (14.5–21.5) 0.043
Yes 43.6 23.8 (19.6–28.0)
 Iron supplement No 92.1 20.1 (17.2–22.9) 0.337
Yes 7.9 25.4 (16.4–34.5)
Grains and tubers No 27.8 25.5 (19.6–31.4) 0.349
Yes 72.2 19.1 (16.1–22.1)
 VARFV No 72.3 21.3 (18.1–24.5) 0.088
Yes 27.7 18.9 (14.0–23.8)
 OFV No 82.8 22.2 (19.2–25.3) 0.006
Yes 17.2 14.1 (8.9–19.3)
 Meat No 91.6 21.5 (18.6–24.3) 0.050
Yes 8.4 13.8 (6.8–20.9)
 Milk No 61.7 22.2 (18.7–25.6) 0.013
Yes 38.3 18.0 (13.7–22.2)
 Legumes and nuts No 79.1 22.3 (19.1–25.4) 0.064
Yes 20.9 14.8 (9.7–19.9)
 Egg No 83.3 21.3 (18.3–24.3) 0.348
Yes 16.7 17.9 (12.0–23.7)
 MDDb No 84.6 22.7 (19.7–25.8) 0.010
Yes 15.4 11.0 (0.06–15.9)
 MMFc No 57.3 19.4 (15.9–22.9) 0.022
Yes 42.7 22.3 (18.0–26.5)
  1. CAS: concurrent anemia and stunting, CI: confidence interval, VARFV: vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables, OFV: other fruits and vegetables
  2. a = Infection defined as history of cough, diarrhea, or fever in the last 2 weeks (yes, any one of the three conditions)
  3. b = Minimum dietary diversity defined as, according to the WHO criteria, eating from 4 or more of the 7 food groups
  4. c = Minimum meal frequency defined as, according to the WHO criteria, when a child ate at least 3 and 4 times a day for breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding, respectively
  5. *Based on Chi-square test of association