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Table 4 Regression coefficients (with 95% confidence intervals)a for dietary quality, measured by food-based DHD15 -index and nutrient-based NRD9.3, and diet-related environmental impact, measured by GHGE, FE, LU, and pReCiPe, using observed and de-attenuated 24-h recall (24hR)-values, and observed and calibrated FFQ-values, for different methods of energy adjustment in the total population

From: FFQ versus repeated 24-h recalls for estimating diet-related environmental impact

Response variables DHD15-index (based on 2 replicates of 24hR) NRD9.3 (based on 2 replicates of 24hR)
Explanatory variables Observed values Observed residuals Density residuals Observed values Observed residuals Density residuals
β (95%CI) β (95%CI) β (95%CI) β (95%CI) β (95%CI) β (95%CI)
GHGE, per 1 kgCO2e/d
 24hR as observed -3.3 (-4.1; -2.4) -3.3 (-4.1; -2.4) -2.7 (-3.5; -1.8) -0.2 (-0.9; 0.6) -0.2 (-0.9; 0.6) -0.4 (-1.1; 0.3)
 De-attenuated 24hR -11.3 (-14.1;-8.4) -14.5 (-18.0;-10.9) -8.3 (-10.8; -5.8) -0.5 (-3.1; 2.0) -0.7 (-4.0; 2.7) -1.2 (-3.3; 1.0)
 FFQ as observed -3.9 (-5.7; -2.0) -3.9 (-5.7; -2.0) -3.9 (-5.8; -2.0) 1.0 (-0.5; 2.5) 1.0 (-0.5; 2.5) 1.1 (-0.5; 2.6)
 Calibrated FFQ -8.3 (-10.8;-5.8) -10.8 (-13.6; -8.0) -7.7 (-9.8; -5.5) 0.9 (-1.2; 3.2) 0.8 (-1.7; 3.4) -0.1 (-2.0; 1.8)
FE, per 5 MJ/d
 24hR as observed -1.3 (-2.1; -0.5) -1.3 (-2.1; -0.5) -0.8 (-1.6; -0.1) 1.3 (0.7; 2.0) 1.3 (0.7; 2.0) 0.7 (0.1; 1.3)
 De-attenuated 24hR -2.9 (-4.8; -1.1) -3.6 (-5.8; -1.3) -1.8 (-3.4; -0.2) 3.1 (1.5; 4.6) 2.3 (1.9; 5.7) 1.5 (0.2; 2.7)
 FFQ as observed -1.7 (-3.1; -0.3) -1.7 (-3.1; -0.3) -1.6 (-3.0; -0.2) 2.3 (1.2; 3.4) 2.3 (1.2; 3.4) 2.4 (1.2; 3.5)
 Calibrated FFQ -2.5 (-4.3; -0.8) -3.1 (-5.0; -1.3) -1.9 (-3.3; -0.5) 3.6 (2.1; 5.0) 3.8 (2.3; 5.4) 2.1 (0.9; 3.3)
LU, per 1 m2*year/d
 24hR as observed -3.2 (-3.9; -2.5) -3.2 (-3.9; -2.5) -2.6 (-3.2; -2.0) -0.6 (-1.2; -0.1) -0.6 (-1.2; -0.1) -0.9 (-1.4; -0.4)
 De-attenuated 24hR -10.4 (-12.5; -8.3) -13.2 (-15.8;-10.6) -7.4 (-9.1; -5.6) -2.1 (-4.0; -0.2) -2.7 (-5.1; -0.3) -2.6 (-4.1; -1.1)
 FFQ as observed -6.3 (-7.8; -4.7) -6.3 (-7.8; -4.7) -6.2 (-7.7; -4.7) 0.2 (-1.1; 1.5) 0.2 (-1.1; 1.5) 0.1 (-1.2; 1.4)
 Calibrated FFQ -9.6 (-11.4; -7.7) -11.4 (-13.3; -9.4) -8.0 (-9.4; -6.4) -0.8 (-2.4; 0.9) -0.9 (-2.7; 0.9) -1.7 (-3.0; -0.4)
pReCiPe, per 0.1
 24hR as observed -3.3 (-4.1; -2.5) -3.3 (-4.1; -2.5) -2.6 (-3.3; -1.9) -0.3 (-0.9; 0.4) -0.3 (-0.9; 0.4) -0.6 (-1.2;0.0)
 De-attenuated 24hR -10.0 (-12.3; -7.7) -12.9 (-15.7; -9.9) -7.1 (-9.1; -5.2) -0.8 (-2.9; 1.2) -1.1 (-3.7; 1.6) -1.6 (-3.3; 0.0)
 FFQ as observed -5.1 (-6.8; -3.4) -5.1 (-6.8; -3.4) -5.1 (-10.3; -5.1) 0.9 (-0.5; 2.3) 0.9 (-0.5; 2.3) 0.9 (-0.5; 2.4)
 Calibrated FFQ -8.6 (-10.7; -6.5) -10.6 (-12.8; -8.3) -7.3 (-9.0; -5.5) 0.5 (-1.3; 2.4) 0.4 (-1.6; 2.5) -0.6 (-2.1; 0.9)
  1. DHD15-index, Dutch Healthy Diet Index 15; NRD9.3, Nutrient Rich Diet score 9.3; GHGE, greenhouse gas emissions; FE, fossil energy use; LU, land use; pReCiPe, a weighted summary score for GHGE, FE, and LU. De-attenuated 24hR-values estimated using the method of Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) to correct for random error. Calibrated FFQ values calculated as the predicted values from a mixed model with FFQ-values, age, gender and BMI as covariates, accounting for random effects
  2. a Regression coefficients represent the percentage change in diet score per unit increase in diet-related environmental impact, and are adjusted for energy intake (continuous and using estimates as measured by that method of dietary assessment), age (continuous), gender (men/women), and BMI (continuous)