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Table 2 Sprouted potato consumption and risks of total NTDs and NTD subtypes

From: Maternal periconceptional consumption of sprouted potato and risks of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts

Sprouted potato consumption Controls
(n = 858)
Total NTDs
(n = 622)
Anencephaly
(n = 281)
Spina bifida
(n = 293)
Encephalocele
(n = 48)
n(%) n(%) OR (95% CI) n(%) OR (95% CI) n(%) OR (95% CI) n(%) OR (95% CI)
Crude OR
 < 1 meal/week 737 (85.9) 512 (82.1) 1.00 229 (81.5) 1.00 243 (83.0) 1.00 38 (79.2) 1.00
 1–3 meals/week 99 (11.5) 79 (12.7) 1.15 (0.84–1.58) 34 (12.1) 1.11 (0.73–1.68) 37 (12.6) 1.13 (0.75–1.69) 8 (16.7) 1.57 (0.71–3.46)
 ≥ 4 meals/week 22 (2.6) 33 (5.3) 2.16 (1.24–3.75) 18 (6.4) 2.63 (1.39–5.00) 13 (4.4) 1.79 (0.89–3.60) 2 (4.2) 1.76 (0.75–1.69)
Adjusted OR1a
 < 1 meal/week 737 (85.9) 512 (82.1) 1.00 229 (81.5) 1.00 243 (83.0) 1.00 38 (79.2) 1.00
 1–3 meals/week 99 (11.5) 79 (12.7) 1.28 (0.88–1.87) 34 (12.1) 1.22 (0.74–2.02) 37 (12.6) 1.23 (0.77–1.97) 8 (16.7) 2.13 (0.86–5.27)
 ≥ 4 meals/week 22 (2.6) 33 (5.3) 2.22 (1.18–4.18) 18 (6.4) 2.42 (1.15–5.11) 13 (4.4) 2.03 (0.94–4.39) 2 (4.2) 2.22 (0.46–10.79)
Adjusted OR2b
 < 1 meal/week 737 (85.9) 512 (82.1) 1.00 229 (81.5) 1.00 243 (83.0) 1.00 38 (79.2) 1.00
 1–3 meals/week 99 (11.5) 79 (12.7) 1.11 (0.75–1.63) 34 (12.1) 1.06 (0.63–1.78) 37 (12.6) 1.23 (0.76–2.00) 8 (16.7) 1.82 (0.70–4.73)
 ≥ 4 meals/week 22 (2.6) 33 (5.3) 2.20 (1.12–4.32) 18 (6.4) 2.48 (1.10–5.58) 13 (4.4) 2.17 (0.97–4.85) 2 (4.2) 3.18 (0.61–16.65)
P for trend   0.009 0.011 0.117 0.203
  1. aAdjusted for maternal age, education, BMI, occupation, infant sex, parity, history of pregnancy affected by birth defects, folic acid supplementation, season of conception, alcohol drinking, and maternal smoking exposure
  2. bAdjusted for maternal age, education, BMI, occupation, infant sex, parity, history of pregnancy affected by birth defects, folic acid supplementation, season of conception, alcohol drinking, maternal smoking exposure, consumption of meat or fish, consumption of egg or milk, consumption of fresh vegetable, consumption of fresh fruit, and consumption of legumes