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Table 1 Characteristics of women who had pregnancies affected by NTDs or OFCs (cases) and women who delivered healthy infants (controls)

From: Maternal periconceptional consumption of sprouted potato and risks of neural tube defects and orofacial clefts

Characteristics Controls
(n = 858)
Cases
NTDs
(n = 622)
OFCs
(n = 135)
n(%)a n(%)a p-Value n(%)a p-Value
Maternal age (years)
 < 25 358(42.4) 249(40.8) 0.800 61(47.3) 0.140
 25–29 268 (31.7) 196 (32.0) 45 (34.9)
 ≥30 219 (25.9) 166 (27.2) 23 (17.8)
BMI (kg/m2)
 < 18.5 53 (6.3) 45 (7.5) 0.002 11 (8.5) 0.339
 18.5–23.9 417 (49.8) 350 (58.0) 70 (53.8)
 ≥ 24 368 (43.9) 208 (34.5) 49 (37.7)
Ethnicity
 Han 853 (99.6) 620 (99.8) 1.000 135 (100) 1.000
 Other 3 (0.4) 1 (0.2) 0 (0)
Occupation
 Farmer 568 (66.9) 420 (69.2) 0.356 73 (54.1) 0.004
 Other 281 (33.1) 187 (30.8) 62 (45.9)
Education
 Primary or lower 51 (6.0) 101 (16.3) < 0.001 18 (13.5) 0.002
 Junior high 656 (76.9) 445 (71.8) 87 (65.4)
 High school or above 146 (17.1) 74 (11.9) 28 (21.1)
Parity
 Primiparas 538 (62.8) 345 (56.4) 0.013 95 (70.9) 0.069
 Multiparas 319 (37.2) 267 (43.6) 39 (29.1)
History of pregnancy affected by birth defects
 Yes 18 (2.1) 42 (6.8) < 0.001 5 (3.7) 0.360
 No 838 (97.9) 573 (93.2) 130 (96.3)
Infant sex
 Male 404 (47.6) 268 (43.9) 0.153 84 (62.2) 0.002
 Female 444 (52.4) 343 (56.1) 51 (37.8)
Folic acid supplementation
 Yes 113 (13.7) 65 (10.7) 0.090 20 (14.4) 0.690
 No 709 (86.3) 540 (89.3) 113 (85.6)
Maternal smoking exposure
 Yes 491 (57.6) 423 (68.6) < 0.001 84 (62.2) 0.315
 No 361 (42.4) 194 (31.4) 51 (37.8)
Alcohol drinking
 Yes 5 (0.6) 9 (1.4) 0.107 4 (3.0) 0.024
 No 848 (99.4) 613 (98.4) 131 (13.4)
Season of conception
 Spring 202 (24.1) 156 (25.4) 0.657 36 (26.9) 0.857
 Summer 206 (24.6) 142 (23.2) 29 (21.6)
 Autumn 207 (24.7) 164 (26.8) 33 (24.6)
 Winter 222 (26.5) 151 (24.6) 36 (26.9)
  1. aValues for some variables may not equal the total number of cases or controls because of missing data