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Table 5 Hazard ratio (95% CI) for developing an undesirable level of metabolic risk markers by dairy food type

From: Dairy intake revisited – associations between dairy intake and lifestyle related cardio-metabolic risk factors in a high milk consuming population

  Hazard ratios of adjusted modela,b
Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5
BMI
 Dairy products 0.86 (0.75, 0.99)0.037 1.01 (0.88, 1.16) 0.97 (0.84, 1.13) 0.90 (0.76, 1.07)
 Non-fermented milk 0.92 (0.80, 1.05) 0.95 (0.83, 1.09) 1.00 (0.87, 1.15) 0.92 (0.79, 1.07)
 Fermented milk 1.03 (0.90. 1.18) 0.93 (0.81, 1.07) 0.91 (0.79, 1.05) 0.95 (0.82, 1.10
 Cheese 1.01 (0.89, 1.15) 1.04 (0.91, 1.19) 0.98 (0.85, 1.13) 1.00 (0.68, 1.16)
 Butter 0.99 (0.86, 1.15) 0.97 (0.84, 1.12) 1.00 (0.86, 1.16) 1.06 (0.91, 1.23)
S-Cholesterol
 Dairy products 1.04 (0.93, 1.16) 1.00 (0.90, 1.12) 1.01 (0.90, 1.14) 0.98 (0.86, 1.12)
 Non-fermented milk 0.99 (0.89, 1.09) 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) 0.96 (0.86, 1.07) 0.92 (0.82, 1.03)
 Fermented milk 1.01 (0.91, 1.13) 1.00 (0.90, 1.11) 1.00 (0.89, 1.11) 0.96 (0.87, 1.09)
 Cheese 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) 1.03 (0.93, 1.14) 0.97 (0.87, 1.09) 0.92 (0.81, 1.03)
 Butter 1.08 (0.96, 1.21) 1.13 (1.01, 1.26)0.042 1.16 (1.03, 1.30)0.012 1.12 (0.99, 1.26)0.064
S-Triglycerides
 Dairy products 0.93 (0.76, 1.14) 0.93 (0.76, 1.14) 0.85 (0.68, 1.06) 0.93 (0.72, 1.19)
 Non-fermented milk 0.92 (0.75, 1.13) 1.02 (0.83, 1.25) 1.03 (0.84, 1.26) 1.06 (0.86, 1.32)
 Fermented milk 1.19 (0.96, 1.45) 0.97 (0.79, 1.20) 0.96 (0.77, 1.19) 1.01 (0.81, 1.25)
 Cheese 0.82 (0.68, 0.99)0.034 0.95 (0.79, 1.15) 0.85 (0.70, 1.04) 0.66 (0.52, 0.83)0.001
 Butter 1.07 (0.86, 1.34) 1.07 (0.86, 1.33) 0.95 (0.76, 1.19) 0.98 (0.77, 1.23)
B-Glucose
 Dairy products 1.10 (0.93, 1.30) 0.85 (0.70, 1.02) 1.02 (0.84, 1.23) 1.11 (0.89, 1.37)
 Non-fermented milk 0.90 (0.75, 1.06) 0.98 (0.82, 1.16) 0.98 (0.82, 1.16) 0.87 (0.72, 1.06)
 Fermented milk 0.92 (0.77, 1.09) 0.90 (0.76, 1.08) 0.89 (0.75, 1.06) 0.87 (0.72, 1.05)
 Cheese 1.00 (0.85, 1.17) 0.96 (0.81, 1.14) 0.87 (0.73, 1.05) 0.90 (0.74, 1.09)
 Butter 1.26 (1.04, 1.52) 1.11 (0.92, 1.34) 1.24 (1.03, 1.50)0.027 1.28 (1.04, 1.56)0.018
Blood pressure
 Dairy products 1.03 (0.92, 1.15) 1.03 (0.92, 1.15) 0.98 (0.87, 1.11) 0.99 (0.86, 1.14)
 Non-fermented milk 1.04 (0.93, 1.15) 1.03 (0.93, 1.15) 0.93 (0.83, 1.05) 0.93 (0.82, 1.05)
 Fermented milk 1.06 (0.95, 1.19) 1.07 (0.96, 1.19) 0.99 (0.88, 1.11) 0.93 (0.82, 1.04)
 Cheese 1.00 (0.90, 1.11) 1.06 (0.95, 1.18) 1.08 (0.96, 1.21) 1.05 (0.93, 1.19)
 Butter 0.91 (0.81, 1.02) 1.01 (0.90, 1.13) 0.99 (0.88, 1.11) 1.00 (0.88, 1.13)
  1. Hazard ratio (95% CI) for developing an undesirable level of BMI, cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose, or blood pressure over the 8–12 year follow-up period and increasing quintile groups (Q1 to Q5) for intake of dairy products. Q1, lowest intake, is the reference category. Statistically significant p-values are in superscript
  2. aCrude models with sex, age and dairy quintiles were tested and HRs were not statistically significant. The adjusted models included sex, age at follow-up, education, year at follow-up, BMI at follow up, physical activity at baseline and follow-up, mean intake of fruits and vegetables and energy over the follow-up period and dairy group. The models with overweight did not include BMI, and models including S-cholesterol or S-triglyceride were also adjusted for if the analyses were performed before or after the change of laboratory analyses methods
  3. bQ1, Q2, Q3, Q4, Q5 median values (servings/day) are for all dairy products 1.6, 2.8, 3.9, 5.1, 7.1; for non-fermented milk 0.08, 0.58, 1.0, 1.4, 2.5; for fermented milk 0.006, 0.16, 0.36, 0.78, 1.1; for cheese 0.14, 0.36, 0.78, 1.0, 2.5; and for butter 0.003, 0.15, 1.0, 2.5, 3.2