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Table 3 Slopesa, deattenuated correlationsb, and attenuation factorsc of DSQ dietary intakes, Healthy Communities Study, USA, 2013–2015

From: Comparison of the NHANES dietary screener questionnaire to the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Recall for Children in the Healthy Communities Study

Food group/nutrient Slope (SEE) Deattenuated Correlation (SEE) Attenuation Factor (SEE)
1. Total added sugars (tsp/day)
All (n = 649) 0.55 (0.11) 0.37 (0.06) 0.25 (0.04)
Sex and age
Male (n = 321) 0.49 (0.14) 0.35 (0.08) 0.25 (0.06)
 4-8y (n = 136) 0.47 (0.27) 0.36 (0.16) 0.27 (0.12)
 9-11y (n = 98) 0.10 (0.23) 0.06 (0.15) 0.04 (0.10)d
 12-15y (n = 87) 0.65 (0.29) 0.47 (0.15) 0.34 (0.11)
Female (n = 328) 0.57 (0.19) 0.37 (0.10) 0.24 (0.06)
 4-8y (n = 131) 0.78 (0.97) 0.46 (0.33) 0.27 (0.14)
 9-11y (n = 112) 0.05 (0.12) 0.06 (0.13) 0.07 (0.16)d
 12-15y (n = 85) 1.60 (0.88) 0.68 (0.21) 0.29 (0.08)
BMI categorye
 Normal weight (n = 363) 0.55 (0.15) 0.36 (0.08) 0.23 (0.05)
 Overweight (n = 104) 0.39 (0.37) 0.26 (0.20) 0.18 (0.13)d
 Obese (n = 177) 0.61 (0.19) 0.45 (0.10) 0.33 (0.08)
Race
 White (n = 357) 0.56 (0.15) 0.45 (0.09) 0.36 (0.07)
 African American (n = 135) 0.36 (0.22) 0.20 (0.12) 0.12 (0.07)d
 Other (n = 66) 0.28 (0.23) 0.27 (0.20) 0.26 (0.19)
Ethnicity
 Hispanic (n = 262) 1.01 (0.46) 0.60 (0.15) 0.36 (0.07)
 Non-Hispanic (n = 371) 0.43 (0.11) 0.32 (0.07) 0.24 (0.05)
2. Added sugars from sugar sweetened beverages (tsp/day)
All (n = 652) 0.66 (0.07) 0.54 (0.04) 0.44 (0.04)
Sex and age
Male (n = 321) 0.71 (0.10) 0.76 (0.06) 0.81 (0.07)
 4-8y (n = 136) 0.75 (0.29) 0.59 (0.15) 0.46 (0.11)
 9-11y (n = 98) 0.72 (0.26) 0.77 (0.15) 0.83 (0.15)
 12-15y (n = 87) 0.57 (0.13) 0.76 (0.10) 1.02 (0.16)
Female (n = 331) 0.60 (0.11) 0.40 (0.06) 0.27 (0.05)
 4-8y (n = 132) 0.88 (0.56) 0.56 (0.21) 0.36 (0.11)
 9-11y (n = 112) 0.19 (0.08) 0.27 (0.11) 0.39 (0.17)
 12-15y (n = 87) 0.93 (0.23) 0.50 (0.10) 0.27 (0.06)
BMI categorye
 Normal weight (n = 365) 0.50 (0.09) 0.45 (0.06) 0.40 (0.06)
 Overweight (n = 104) 1.00 (0.54) 0.65 (0.20) 0.43 (0.11)
 Obese (n = 178) 0.82 (0.13) 0.63 (0.07) 0.48 (0.06)
Race
 White (n = 358) 0.63 (0.08) 0.62 (0.05) 0.62 (0.06)
 African American (n = 136) 0.69 (0.24) 0.39 (0.11) 0.22 (0.07)
 Other (n = 67) 0.38 (0.22) 0.31 (0.16) 0.25 (0.14)
Ethnicity
 Hispanic (n = 262) 1.19 (0.40) 0.73 (0.13) 0.45 (0.06)
 Non-Hispanic (n = 374) 0.57 (0.07) 0.56 (0.05) 0.55 (0.06)
3. Fruits and vegetables (cup equivalents/day)
All (n = 647) 0.36 (0.06) 0.40 (0.05) 0.44 (0.06)
Sex and age
Male (n = 321) 0.42 (0.10) 0.41 (0.08) 0.40 (0.08)
 4-8y (n = 136) 0.31 (0.12) 0.36 (0.11) 0.42 (0.13)
 9-11y (n = 98) 0.44 (0.17) 0.46 (0.13) 0.48 (0.15)
 12-15y (n = 87) 0.59 (0.26) 0.46 (0.15) 0.36 (0.12)
Female (n = 326) 0.32 (0.07) 0.44 (0.07) 0.61 (0.10)
 4-8y (n = 130) 0.39 (0.09) 0.54 (0.10) 0.75 (0.15)
 9-11y (n = 111) 0.40 (0.18) 0.50 (0.15) 0.62 (0.18)
 12-15y (n = 85) 0.19 (0.11) 0.28 (0.14) 0.42 (0.22)
BMI categorye
 Normal weight (n = 363) 0.42 (0.07) 0.46 (0.06) 0.50 (0.07)
 Overweight (n = 104) 0.49 (0.30) 0.42 (0.18) 0.36 (0.15)
 Obese (n = 175) 0.20 (0.11) 0.23 (0.11) 0.26 (0.13)
Race
 White (n = 355) 0.46 (0.09) 0.47 (0.07) 0.49 (0.07)
 African American (n = 134) 0.08 (0.13) 0.09 (0.14) 0.10 (0.15)d
 Other (n = 67) 0.53 (0.21) 0.56 (0.16) 0.60 (0.18)
Ethnicity
 Hispanic (n = 279) 0.29 (0.10) 0.32 (0.09) 0.35 (0.10)
 Non-Hispanic (n = 373) 0.44 (0.08) 0.47 (0.07) 0.51 (0.07)
4. Whole grains (oz equivalents/day)
All (n = 652) 0.33 (0.07) 0.34 (0.06) 0.35 (0.06)
Sex and age
Male (n = 322) 0.34 (0.10) 0.36 (0.08) 0.37 (0.09)
 4-8y (n = 136) 0.38 (0.12) 0.42 (0.11) 0.47 (0.13)
 9-11y (n = 99) 0.28 (0.19) 0.26 (0.15) 0.24 (0.14)
 12-15y (n = 87) 0.40 (0.26) 0.47 (0.21) 0.56 (0.23)
Female (n = 330) 0.29 (0.09) 0.29 (0.08) 0.30 (0.08)
 4-8y (n = 132) 0.14 (0.07) 0.26 (0.11) 0.47 (0.20)
 9-11y (n = 111) 1.08 (38.71) 0.09 (1.87) 0.01 (0.10)d
 12-15y (n = 87) 0.50 (0.17) 0.47 (0.13) 0.44 (0.13)
BMI categorye
 Normal weight (n = 364) 0.27 (0.07) 0.30 (0.07) 0.32 (0.08)
 Overweight (n = 105) 0.59 (0.39) 0.44 (0.20) 0.33 (0.13)
 Obese (n = 178) 0.51 (0.19) 0.54 (0.13) 0.56 (0.12)
Race
 White (n = 358) 0.36 (0.10) 0.37 (0.08) 0.39 (0.08)
 African American (n = 135) 0.55 (0.25) 0.35 (0.13) 0.22 (0.08)
 Other (n = 67) 0.97 (0.84) 0.70 (0.33) 0.51 (0.17)
Ethnicity
 Hispanic (n = 264) 0.17 (0.06) 0.22 (0.07) 0.27 (0.09)
 Non-Hispanic (n = 372) 0.53 (0.17) 0.45 (0.10) 0.38 (0.08)
5. Fiber (g/day)
All (n = 638) 0.31 (0.06) 0.34 (0.06) 0.37 (0.06)
Sex and age
Male (n = 318) 0.21 (0.07) 0.24 (0.08) 0.26 (0.09)
 4-8y (n = 136) 0.22 (0.12) 0.26 (0.12) 0.29 (0.14)
 9-11y (n = 99) 0.28 (0.15) 0.30 (0.14) 0.31 (0.15)
 12-15y (n = 87) 0.18 (0.11) 0.24 (0.14) 0.31 (0.18)
Female (n = 320) 0.44 (0.11) 0.54 (0.09) 0.64 (0.11)
 4-8y (n = 129) 0.56 (0.29) 0.56 (0.18) 0.57 (0.16)
 9-11y (n = 109) 0.53 (0.26) 0.63 (0.18) 0.74 (0.19)
 12-15y (n = 82) 0.35 (0.14) 0.48 (0.14) 0.67 (0.21)
BMI categorye
 Normal weight (n = 359) 0.27 (0.07) 0.32 (0.07) 0.37 (0.08)
 Overweight (n = 103) 0.42 (0.23) 0.40 (0.16) 0.39 (0.16)
 Obese (n = 171) 0.35 (0.22) 0.32 (0.15) 0.29 (0.13)
Race
 White (n = 352) 0.32 (0.07) 0.36 (0.07) 0.41 (0.08)
 African American (n = 131) 0.19 (0.24) 0.14 (0.16) 0.10 (0.11)d
 Other (n = 66) 0.28 (0.17) 0.36 (0.18) 0.46 (0.23)
Ethnicity
 Hispanic (n = 255) 0.31 (0.10) 0.34 (0.09) 0.38 (0.10)
 Non-Hispanic (n = 368) 0.35 (0.09) 0.36 (0.07) 0.37 (0.08)
6. Dairy (cup equivalents/day)
All (n = 653) 0.47 (0.08) 0.50 (0.06) 0.54 (0.06)
Sex and age
Male (n = 323) 0.36 (0.10) 0.39 (0.09) 0.43 (0.09)
 4-8y (n = 136) 0.60 (0.22) 0.65 (0.14) 0.69 (0.14)
 9-11y (n = 100) 0.19 (0.28) 0.15 (0.21) 0.12 (0.16)d
 12-15y (n = 87) 0.26 (0.10) 0.38 (0.13) 0.54 (0.20)
Female (n = 330) 0.47 (0.12) 0.50 (0.09) 0.54 (0.09)
 4-8y (n = 131) 0.34 (0.10) 0.49 (0.11) 0.71 (0.17)
 9-11y (n = 113) 0.42 (0.25) 0.40 (0.18) 0.39 (0.16)
 12-15y (n = 86) 0.77 (0.92) 0.51 (0.37) 0.34 (0.18)
BMI Categorye
 Normal weight (n = 364) 0.42 (0.09) 0.48 (0.07) 0.54 (0.08)
 Overweight (n = 105) 0.55 (0.31) 0.51 (0.19) 0.48 (0.17)
 Obese (n = 179) 0.91 (0.42) 0.71 (0.18) 0.56 (0.11)
Race
 White (n = 359) 0.52 (0.13) 0.54 (0.09) 0.55 (0.09)
 African American (n = 134) 0.22 (0.12) 0.25 (0.12) 0.27 (0.14)
 Other (n = 67) 0.86 (0.34) 0.84 (0.17) 0.81 (0.15)
Ethnicity
 Hispanic (n = 265) 0.56 (0.17) 0.52 (0.11) 0.49 (0.09)
 Non-Hispanic (n = 372) 0.42 (0.08) 0.49 (0.07) 0.57 (0.09)
  1. aSlopes in the regression of dietary intake reported from Dietary Screener Questionnaire on true usual intake, as estimated from multiple ASA24-Kids recalls in a measurement error model. If the DSQ were unbiased, slopes would equal 1 [23]
  2. bDeattenuated correlations between reported and true usual intakes
  3. cAttenuation factors resulting from measurement error in reported intake for each dietary factor. The attenuation factor indicates the degree to which the observed log relative risk between the observed exposure of a dietary intake derived from the DSQ and an outcome of interest is biased due to measurement error [23]. Values between 0 and 1 indicate bias towards the null (underestimation of true association) and values greater than 1 indicate bias away from the null (overestimation of true association) [23]
  4. dAttenuation factor is very close to 0; careful consideration is needed when determining whether to adjust these intake estimates for measurement error
  5. eBMI categories defined as follows: ‘normal weight’ was defined as having a BMI under the 85th percentile BMI for age and sex; 85th up to 95th percentile for ‘overweight’; and at or above 95th percentile for ‘obese’