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Table 7 Fasting concentrations of inflammatory markers, blood lipids and BDNF, 11 h after RB + RS2 or WWB intakea

From: Impact of rye-based evening meals on cognitive functions, mood and cardiometabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled study in healthy middle-aged subjects

Test variables WWB RB + RS2 b
p-CRP, fasting (ng/mL)c 1890 ± 580 1650 ± 320 −13
p-IL-1β, fasting (pg/mL)d 0.085 ± 0.011 0.076 ± 0.011 −11*
p-IL-6, fasting (pg/mL)c 2.0 ± 0.2 1.9 ± 0.2 −4
p-IL-18, fasting (pg/mL)e 177 ± 12 176 ± 12 0
p-LBP, fasting (pg/mL)e 93.0 ± 6.6 98.2 ± 6.7 6
s-FFA, fasting (mmol/L)d 0.31 ± 0.02 0.35 ± 0.03 12
s-Triglycerides, fasting (mg/dL)c 109 ± 7 116 ± 7 6
p-BDNF, fasting (ng/mL)e 0.59 ± 0.04 0.56 ± 0.04 −5
  1. BDNF Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, CRP C-reactive protein, FFA Free fatty acids, IL Interleukin, LPB Lipopolysaccharide binding protein, RB + RS2 1:1 ratio rye kernel- and flour based bread with added resistant starch (14%, dm), WWB White wheat bread
  2. *Different from WWB P < 0.05 (ANOVA, GLM, Minitab)
  3. aData are presented as means ± SEM
  4. bThe percentage change was calculated as the difference from the WWB to the RB + RS2
  5. cn = 37
  6. dn = 36
  7. en = 38