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Table 3 Subjective mood ratings post the standardized breakfast, 11-14 h after RB + RS2 or WWB interventions, respectivelya

From: Impact of rye-based evening meals on cognitive functions, mood and cardiometabolic risk factors: a randomized controlled study in healthy middle-aged subjects

Test variables WWB RB + RS2 b
Valence, fasting (mm) 70.6 ± 2.7 76.9 ± 2.3 9*
Valence, mean 0–180 min (mm) 67.8 ± 2.6 74.7 ± 2.2 10***
Activation, fasting (mm) 61.0 ± 3.2 70.3 ± 3.0 15*
Activation, mean 0–180 min (mm) 57.4 ± 2.5 61.6 ± 2.7 7*
  1. RB + RS2 1:1 ratio rye kernel- and flour based bread with added resistant starch (14%, dm), WWB White wheat bread
  2. *Different from WWB P < 0.05; **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 (ANOVA, GLM, Minitab)
  3. aData are presented as means ± SEM
  4. bThe percentage change was calculated as the difference from the WWB to the RB + RS2. n = 37