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Table 4 Bivariate analyses to identify candidate variables for multivariable logistic regression to identify determinants of LBW, Dessie Town, Ethiopia, 2017

From: A health facility based case-control study on determinants of low birth weight in Dassie town, Northeast Ethiopia: the role of nutritional factors

Variables Cases Controls Crude OR (95%CI) p-value
No % No %
Maternal age (year)
 ≤ 20 9 (9.7) 32 (17.2) 0.54 (0.25,1.19) 0.127*
 21–35 77 (82.8) 147 (79.6) 1  
 > 35 7 (7.5) 6 (3.2) 2.24 (0.73,6.91) 0.159*
Residence
 Urban 52 (55.9) 111 (59.7) 1  
 Rural 41 (44.1) 75 (40.3) 1.17 (0.71,1.93) 0.548
Educational status of mothers
 Informal 32 (34.4) 32 (17.2) 2.53 (1.42,4.48) 0.002*
 Formal 61 (65.6) 154 (82.8) 1  
Occupation of mothers
 Employed 17 (18.3) 63 (33.9) 1  
 Merchant 5 (5.4) 24 (12.9) 0.77 (0.26,2.33) 0.646
 Housewife 65 (69.9) 91 (48.9) 2.65 (1.42,4.94) 0.002*
 Others 6 (6.5) 8 (4.3) 2.78 0.85,9.1) 0.091
Wealth index
 Lower 58 (62.4) 101 (54.3) 1.09 (0.57,2.07) 0.797
 Middle 16 (17.2) 49 (26.3) 0.62 (0.28,1.37) 0.235*
 Upper 19 (20.4) 36 (19.4) 1  
Height (cm)
 < 150 22 (23.7) 23 (12.4) 2.21 (1.15,4.21) 0.017*
 > =150 71 (76.3) 163 (87.6) 1  
MUAC
 < 23 49 (52.7) 25 (13.4) 7.17 (3.99,12.88) < 0.0001**
 > =23 44 (47.3) 161 (86.6) 1  
Any multivitamin
 Yes 9 (9.7) 36 (19.4) 1  
 No 84 (90.3) 150 (80.6) 2.24 (1.03,4.88) 0.042*
Iron and folate supplementation
 Yes 64 (68.8) 166 (89.2) 1  
 No 29 (31.2) 20 (10.8) 3.76 (1.99,7.12) < 0.0001**
Anemia
 Yes 30 (32.3) 17 (9.1) 4.73 (2.44, 9.17) < 0.0001**
 No 63 (67.7) 169 (90.9) 1  
ANC follow up
 Yes 83 (89.2) 180 (96.8) 1  
 No 10 (10.8) 6 (3.2) 3.61 (1.27, 10.28) 0.016*
Nutritional counseling
 Yes 40 (43.0) 153 (82.3) 1  
 No 53 (57.0) 33 (17.7) 6.14 (3.52,10.72) < 0.0001**
Additional food intake during pregnancy
 Yes 34 (36.6) 134 (72) 1  
 No 59 (63.4) 52 (28) 4.47 (2.63, 7.61) < 0.0001**
MDD-W
 inadequate 87 (93.5) 117 (62.9) 8.55 (3.55, 20.61) < 0.0001**
 adequate 6 (6.5) 69 (37.1) 1  
Khat chewing
 Yes 33 (35.5) 50 (26.9) 1.51 (0.88, 2.55) 0.14*
 No 60 (64.5) 136 (73.1) 1  
History of abortion
 Yes 22 (23.7) 22 (11.8) 2.31 (1.20, 4.44) 0.012*
 No 71 (76.3) 164 (88.2) 1  
History of preterm delivery
 Yes 10 (10.8) 5 (2.7) 4.36 (1.45, 13.16) 0.009*
 No 83 (89.2) 181 (97.3) 1  
HIV status
 Reactive 5 (5.4) 4 (2.2) 2.59 (0.68, 9.87) 0.164*
 Non-reactive 88 (94.6) 182 (97.8) 1  
Type of pregnancy
 Planned and wanted 66 (71.0) 149 (80.1) 1  
 Unplanned but wanted 23 (24.7) 32 (17.2) 1.62 (0.88, 2.98) 0.119*
 Unplanned and wanted 4 (4.3) 5 (2.7) 1.81 (0.47, 6.94) 0.389
Infant sex
 Male 49 (52.7) 117 (62.9) 1  
 Female 44 (47.3) 69 (37.1) 1.52 (0.92, 2.52) 0.102*
  1. **P < 0.0001 *p < 0.25