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Table 2 BMI estimates of the univariate ordered probit model with no assumption of endogeneity between smoking and body weight

From: An empirical investigation of the impact of smoking on body weight using an endogenous treatment effects model approach: the role of food consumption patterns

Variables BMI
Full sample Males Females
Smoker (smoking participation) − 0.058 − 0.089 − 0.022
(0.045) (0.060) (0.068)
Sociodemographic characteristicsa
 Gender (women) −0.282***
(0.041)   
 30–60 years old 0.441*** 0.446*** 0.437***
(0.064) (0.089) (0.092)
 Over 60 years old 0.608*** 0.508*** 0.696***
(0.075) (0.105) (0.107)
 Married 0.167*** 0.213*** 0.141*
(0.054) (0.074) (0.080)
 Divorced/widowed 0.213*** 0.157 0.209**
(0.072) (0.110) (0.098)
 Big city −0.154*** −0.128* −0.175**
(0.049) (0.069) (0.071)
 Village/Rural area 0.060 0.047 0.091
(0.047) (0.066) (0.067)
Frequent consumption of:
 Whole grain bread −0.029 −0.088 0.041
(0.040) (0.056) (0.060)
 White/toasted bread −0.053 − 0.134** 0.044
(0.043) (0.058) (0.066)
 Fruits −0.023 −0.044 0.017
(0.045) (0.060) (0.071)
 Vegetables −0.023 0.031 −0.063
(0.042) (0.060) (0.059)
 Meat products 0.299*** 0.364*** 0.254***
(0.054) (0.093) (0.066)
 Deep fried foods −0.016 −0.121 0.160
(0.074) (0.091) (0.132)
 Confectionery −0.159*** −0.191*** − 0.133**
(0.039) (0.055) (0.056)
μ1 −1.742 −1.984 −1.287
μ2 0.359 0.280 0.768
μ3 1.428 1.483 1.690
Log-Likelihood − 3644.031 − 1835.938 − 1780.192
  1. Standard errors are given in parentheses
  2. aAge: 18–29 years old (reference category), Marital status: single (reference category)
  3. Area of residence: town (reference category)
  4. *p < 0.1, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01 (Statistically significant variables are highlighted in bold)