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Table 5 Covariate-adjusted* median intake of energy, protein, iron, zinc and folic acid from diet and diet+supplement at baseline and changes from baseline to follow-up stages by supplementation group

From: Fortified food supplementation in children with reduced dietary energy and micronutrients intake in Southern Mexico

Stage study FF Syrup MNP Syrup vs FF MNP vs FF MNP vs Syrup FF Syrup MNP Syrup vs FF MNP vs FF MNP vs Syrup
Diet Diet + supplement
Energy (kcal)
 Baseline 462.0
(365.6, 558.4)
451.9
(348.0, 555.7)
442.0
(376.6, 507.4)
−10.1
(− 151.8, 131.6)
− 20.0
(− 136.5, 96.5)
−9.9
(− 132.6, 112.9)
462.0
(365.9, 558.0)
451.9
(348.4, 555.4)
442.0
(376.8, 507.2)
−10.1
(− 151.3, 131.1)
− 20.0
(− 136.1, 96.1)
−9.9
(− 132.2, 112.5)
 4 m - Baseline 257.8
(155.9, 359.8)
405.9
(308.2, 503.5)
442.0
(328.9, 555.1)
148.0
(6.9, 289.2)
184.1
(31.9, 336.4)
36.1
(− 113.3, 185.6)
394.9
(287.4, 502.4)
405.9
(308.4, 503.3)
442.0
(328.1, 555.9)
11.0
(− 134.1, 156.1)
47.1
(− 109.5, 203.7)
36.1
(− 113.8, 186.0)
 10 m - Baseline 697.6
(574.9, 820.2)
915.5
(760.6, 1070.3)
802.8
(678.0, 927.5)
217.9
(20.4, 415.4)
105.2
(−69.8, 280.2)
− 112.7
(− 311.5, 86.1)
837.3
(718.9, 955.8)
915.5
(761.2, 1069.7)
802.8
(678.4, 927.1)
78.1
(−116.4, 272.6)
− 34.5
(− 206.3, 137.2)
− 112.7
(− 310.8, 85.5)
Protein (g)
 Baseline 13.1
(10.0, 16.3)
14.2
(10.6, 17.8)
14.6
(11.2, 18.1)
1.1
(−3.7, 5.8)
1.5
(− 3.2, 6.2)
0.4
(− 4.5, 5.4)
13.1
(10.1, 16.2)
12.8
(0.3, 25.2)
11.8
(2.1, 21.5)
−0.4
(− 12.0, 11.2)
−1.3
(−9.9, 7.3)
−0.9
(− 12.0, 10.2)
 4 m - Baseline 8.0
(2.7, 13.4)
13.0
(9.2, 16.8)
14.0
(10.1, 17.9)
5.0
(−1.6, 11.5)
6.0
(−0.6, 12.6)
1.0
(− 4.4, 6.5)
21.3
(9.9, 32.7)
22.1
(4.7, 39.5)
15.0
(6.5, 23.6)
0.8
(−20.0, 21.6)
−6.3
(− 20.5, 8.0)
−7.1
(− 26.5, 12.3)
 10 m - Baseline 25.3
(18.2, 32.4)
29.8
(24.8, 34.8)
26.9
(22.4, 31.4)
4.5
(−4.1, 13.2)
1.6
(− 6.8, 10.0)
− 2.9
(−9.6, 3.8)
51.7
(25.1, 78.4)
46.8
(26.7, 67.0)
49.6
(37.1, 62.0)
− 4.9
(− 38.3, 28.5)
− 2.2
(− 31.6, 27.2)
2.7
(− 21.0, 26.4)
Iron (mg)
 Baseline 2.1
(1.6, 2.6)
2.1
(1.5, 2.8)
2.2
(1.7, 2.7)
0.0
(−0.8, 0.8)
0.1
(− 0.6, 0.8)
0.1
(− 0.7, 0.9)
2.1
(1.6, 2.6)
2.1
(1.5, 2.8)
2.2
(1.8, 2.6)
0.0
(−0.8, 0.9)
0.1
(− 0.5, 0.8)
0.1
(− 0.7, 0.9)
 4 m - Baseline 1.1
(0.5, 1.7)
1.5
(0.7, 2.2)
1.4
(0.9, 2.0)
0.4
(−0.6, 1.3)
0.3
(−0.5, 1.1)
− 0.0
(−1.0, 0.9)
10.2
(9.6, 10.7)
10.5
(9.5, 11.5)
11.3
(10.7, 11.9)
0.3
(−0.9, 1.5)
1.1
(0.3, 1.9)
0.8
(−0.4, 2.0)
 10 m - Baseline 3.5
(2.8, 4.2)
3.9
(2.9, 4.9)
4.0
(2.8, 5.2)
0.4
(−0.8, 1.7)
0.5
(−0.9, 1.9)
0.1
(−1.5, 1.6)
11.9
(11.4, 12.5)
13.3
(12.2, 14.4)
13.2
(12.1, 14.3)
1.4
(0.1, 2.6)
1.2
(0.0, 2.5)
−0.1
(−1.7, 1.4)
Zinc (mg)
 Baseline 2.3
(1.8, 2.9)
2.6
(1.7, 3.6)
2.5
(2.0, 3.0)
0.3
(−0.8, 1.4)
0.2
(−0.6, 0.9)
− 0.2
(−1.2, 0.9)
2.3
(1.8, 2.9)
2.6
(1.7, 3.6)
2.5
(2.0, 3.0)
0.3
(−0.8, 1.5)
0.2
(− 0.6, 0.9)
−0.2
(−1.3, 0.9)
 4 m - Baseline 1.2
(0.5, 1.8)
1.9
(1.1, 2.7)
2.1
(1.2, 3.0)
0.7
(−0.3, 1.7)
0.9
(−0.2, 2.0)
0.2
(−1.0, 1.4)
10.0
(9.4, 10.7)
9.8
(8.6, 11.1)
12.0
(11.1, 12.9)
−0.2
(−1.6, 1.2)
2.0
(0.9, 3.1)
2.2
(0.7, 3.7)
 10 m - Baseline 3.6
(2.6, 4.6)
3.8
(2.8, 4.7)
4.1
(3.0, 5.1)
0.2
(−1.2, 1.5)
0.5
(−1.0, 1.9)
0.3
(− 1.1, 1.7)
12.0
(11.1, 13.0)
13.3
(12.2, 14.4)
13.5
(12.4, 14.6)
1.3
(−0.2, 2.7)
1.4
(0.0, 2.9)
0.2
(−1.3, 1.7)
Folic acid (μg)
 Baseline 29.6
(22.4, 36.9)
28.3
(19.9, 36.7)
33.5
(25.1, 41.9)
−1.3
(−12.4, 9.8)
3.9
(−7.2, 15.0)
5.2
(−6.6, 17.1)
29.6
(22.3, 37.0)
28.3
(19.7, 36.9)
33.5
(25.3, 41.8)
−1.3
(− 12.6, 10.0)
3.9
(−7.1, 14.9)
5.2
(− 6.7, 17.1)
 4 m - Baseline 15.0
(5.0, 25.0)
29.9
(17.7, 42.2)
12.2
(0.4, 24.1)
14.9
(−0.9, 30.7)
−2.8
(−18.3, 12.7)
− 17.7
(−34.7, − 0.7)
56.5
(45.3, 67.8)
70.3
(59.4, 81.2)
60.1
(47.9, 72.2)
13.8
(− 1.9, 29.4)
3.6
(− 13.0, 20.1)
−10.2
(− 26.5, 6.1)
 10 m - Baseline 54.6
(44.6, 64.6)
70.7
(49.9, 91.5)
44.6
(29.5, 59.8)
16.1
(−7.0, 39.2)
−10.0
(−28.1, 8.1)
− 26.1
(− 51.8, − 0.4)
99.2
(86.7, 111.7)
116.8
(96.9, 136.8)
91.4
(75.1, 107.8)
17.6
(− 5.9, 41.2)
− 7.7
(− 28.3, 12.9)
−25.4
(− 51.2, 0.4)
  1. Fortified food (FF), Micronutrient powder (MNP), and Syrup (Syrup)
  2. Obtained from a quantile regression with age at the onset of supplementation and socioeconomic level as adjustment covariates and standard errors adjusted for data dependencies within communities. *Age at the onset of supplementation and socioeconomic status level
  3. In boldface are the significant differences in differences