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Table 3 Significance levels of comparisons between diagnostic groups using Marascuilo post-hoc analysis procedure

From: Severely malnourished children with a low weight-for-height have a higher mortality than those with a low mid-upper-arm-circumference: I. Empirical data demonstrates Simpson’s paradox

Children with marasmus
Comparisons All IPF OTP SFC
0–60 m p p p p
 muac v whz 0.000 ns 0.001 ns
 muac v both 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
 whz v both 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
6 - < 18 m     
 muac v whz 0.000 ns ns ns
 muac v both 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.003
 whz v both 0.000 0.017 0.000 ns
18 - < 36 m     
 muac v whz 0.000 ns 0.000 ns
 muac v both 0.000 0.001 0.000 ns
 whz v both 0.000 0.000 0.000 ns
36–60 m     
 muac v whz ns ns ns ns
 muac v both 0.000 0.000 ns ns
 whz v both 0.000 0.017 0.019 ns
Children with kwashiorKor/marasmic-kwashiorKor
Comparisons All IPF OTP  
0–60 m p p p  
 K-muac v Kwash ns ns ns  
 K-whz v Kwash 0.000 0.000 0.000  
 K-both v Kwash 0.000 0.000 0.000  
 K-muac v K-whz 0.000 0.001 0.000  
 K-muac v K-both 0.000 0.000 0.000  
 K-whz v K-both ns ns 0.041  
6 - < 18 m     
 K-muac v Kwash ns ns ns  
 K-whz v Kwash 0.014 ns ns  
 K-both v Kwash 0.000 0.000 ns  
 K-muac v K-whz 0.007 ns 0.006  
 K-muac v K-both 0.000 0.002 0.000  
 K-whz v K-both ns ns ns  
18 - < 36 m     
 K-muac v Kwash ns ns ns  
 K-whz v Kwash 0.000 0.003 0.000  
 K-both v Kwash 0.000 0.000 0.000  
 K-muac v K-whz 0.000 0.012 0.001  
 K-muac v K-both 0.000 0.000 0.002  
 K-whz v K-both ns ns ns  
36–60 m     
 K-muac v Kwash 0.047 ns ns  
 K-whz v Kwash 0.000 0.011 0.000  
 K-both v Kwash 0.000 0.000 0.000  
 K-muac v K-whz 0.007 ns 0.002  
 K-muac v K-both 0.000 0.002 ns  
 K-whz v K-both ns ns ns  
  1. Abbreviations are given in Table 2; ns not significant at p < 0.05