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Table 1 Characteristics of the Chinese type 2 diabetic adults with and without obesity

From: Diet quality is inversely associated with obesity in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes

  All
(n = 211)
Non-obese T2D
(n = 105)
Obese T2D
(n = 106)
P-value P-value adjusted for age and sex
Social-demographics
 Age, years 54.0 ± 8.6 55.8 ± 7.5 52.1 ± 9.2 0.001
 Sex
  Male 115 (54.5) 57 (49.6) 58 (50.4) 0.950
  Female 96 (45.5) 48 (50.4) 48 (49.6)   
 Weight, kg 78.1 ± 21.1 61.2 ± 8.9 94.8 ± 15.7 < 0.001 < 0.001
 BMI, kg/m2 28.7 ± 6.8 22.7 ± 1.6 34.6 ± 4.3 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Waist circumference, cm 97.6 ± 16.2 84.3 ± 7.4 110.7 ± 11.1 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Waist-hip ratio 0.95 ± 0.07 0.91 ± 0.06 0.98 ± 0.07 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Education level, secondary or above 160 (75) 78 (74.3) 82 (77.4) 0.602 0.415
 Full/Part-time employment 136 (64.4) 66 (62.9) 70 (66.0) 0.629 0.446
 Smoking 50 (23.7) 24 (22.9) 26 (24.5) 0.775 0.665
 Alcohol drinking 5 (2.4) 3 (2.9) 2 (1.9) 0.643 0.696
Clinical and biochemical profile
 History of hypertension 146 (69.2) 59 (56.2) 87 (82.1) < 0.001 < 0.001
 History of cardiovascular disease 39 (18.5) 21 (20.0) 18 (17.0) 0.572 0.810
 Duration of diabetes, years 8.8 ± 7.7 9.1 ± 7.8 8.5 ± 7.6 0.566 0.804
 Oral antidiabetic drug use 188 (89.1) 93 (88.6) 95 (89.6) 0.806 0.439
 Insulin use 72 (34.1) 31 (29.5) 40 (37.7) 0.266 0.331
 Antihypertensive drug use 142 (67.3) 58 (55.2) 84 (79.2) < 0.001 < 0.001
 Lipid-lowering drug use 134 (63.5) 57 (54.3) 77 (72.6) 0.006 < 0.001
 SBP, mmHg 131.5 ± 20.3 130.1± 21.8 132.9 ± 18.6 0.311 0.186
 DBP, mmHg 74.5 ± 11.7 72.0 ± 11.1 77.1 ± 11.7 < 0.001 0.004
 FPG, mmol/L 7.6 ± 2.7 7.5 ± 2.2 7.7 ± 2.3 0.601 0.438
 HbA1C, % 7.7 ± 1.5 7.6 ± 1.6 7.7 ± 1.4 0.495 0.222
 TC, mmol/L 4.14 ± 0.86 4.21 ± 0.85 4.07 ± 0.87 0.274 0.211
 LDL-C, mmol/L 2.19 ± 0.74 2.23 ± 0.78 2.15 ± 0.70 0.439 0.334
 HDL-C, mmol/L 1.25 ± 0.36 1.34 ± 0.39 1.15 ± 0.30 < 0.001 < 0.001
 TG, mmol/L 1.33 (0.93–1.97) 1.12 (0.79–1.77) 1.42 (1.06–2.08) 0.033 0.007
Physical activity
 Physical activity level, MET-minutes/week 2088.2 ± 1642.1 2202.8 ± 1789.0 1974.6 ± 1482.1 0.314 0.476
  1. Variables are presented as mean ± standard deviation, median (interquartile) or frequency (percentage) (%)
  2. BMI body mass index, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, FPG fasting plasma glucose, HbA1C glycated hemoglobin, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, SBP Systolic blood pressure, T2D type 2 diabetes, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride