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Table 2 Reported daily nutrient intakes among federal food assistance program participants, food insecure non-participants, and food secure non-participants, 2001–2014 (n = 34,741)

From: Nutrient intake disparities in the US: modeling the effect of food substitutions

Nutrient Food insecure non-participantsa (n = 3631) WIC participants (n = 636) SNAP participants (n = 4020) Food secure non-participants (26,454)
  Percent not meeting recommendations (95% CI)d
Saturated fatty acidsc 55.3 (52.1–58.5) 57.5 (50.4–64.7) 58.9 (55.5–62.2) 62.1 (60.6–63.6)**
Vitamin Ad 67.5 (64.7–70.2) 60.9 (53.3–68.6) 66.4 (62.8–70.0) 46.9 (45.4–48.4)***
Vitamin C 58.7 (55.9–61.4) 47.3 (39.2–55.3)*** 60.3 (57.4–55.3) 45.9 (44.3–47.5)***
Vitamin D 98.0 (97.8–98.2) 96.0 (94.0–98.0) 96.0 (95.8–96.2)*** 95.0 (94.8–95.2)***
Vitamin E 94.9 (93.9–95.8) 97.3 (95.9–98.6)** 95.1 (94.1–96.1) 88.1 (87.0–89.2)***
Thiamin 12.0 (10.5–13.6) 15.8 (12.6–18.9) 11.6 (10.2–13.0) 9.5 (8.8–10.2)***
Riboflavin 12.5 (10.9–14.0) 12.7 (9.8–15.6) 11.6 (10.2–13.0) 9.7 (9.0–10.4)***
Niacin 10.2 (8.8–11.6) 9.6 (6.9–12.3) 9.6 (8.2–10.9) 9.3 (8.5–10.0)
Vitamin B6 22.6 (20.5–24.6) 25.7 (20.6–30.9) 23.8 (21.9–25.8) 18.8 (17.6–19.9)***
Folatee 30.9 (28.4–33.5) 27.3 (22.3–32.2) 35.7 (33.2–38.1)* 27.9 (26.8–29.0)
Vitamin B12 13.6 (12.0–15.3) 11.3 (8.7–13.9) 12.3 (10.7–13.9) 10.8 (10.0–11.6)**
Calcium 54.7 (52.0–57.4) 44.6 (37.8–51.4)** 55.5 (52.7–58.2) 47.4 (46.2–48.6)***
Iron 15.7 (14.1–17.4) 62.6 (50.6–74.6)*** 17.2 (15.4–19) 12.7 (11.9–13.5)***
Magnesium 83.1 (81.3–84.9) 86.9 (83.5–90.4) 85.8 (84.1–87.6) 72.1 (70.9–73.3)***
Sodiumf 78.7 (76.9–80.5) 81.4 (76.6–86.2) 76.5 (74.5–78.5) 81.4 (80.5–82.3)***
Zinc 47.0 (44.7–49.3) 44.2 (38.5–49.9) 52.4 (49.7–55.2)** 39.4 (38.2–40.6)**
  Mean intake (95% CI)
Energy (kcal) 2171 (2119–2224) 2309 (2202–2416)* 2192 (2144–2239) 2176 (2159–2192)
Protein, total (g) 81 (79–83) 88 (83–92)* 81 (80–83) 84 (83–84)*
Carbohydrate, total (g) 267 (260–274) 289 (275–304)* 270 (263–277) 262 (260–264)
Fatty acids, total (g) 81 (78–83) 87 (81–92) 81 (79–83) 83 (82–84)
Fiber (g) 14 (13–14) 14 (13–15) 13 (12–13)** 16 (16–16)***
Eicosapentaenoic acid (g) 0.02 (0.02–0.02) 0.02 (0.02–0.03) 0.02 (0.02–0.02) 0.03 (0.03–0.03)**
Docosahexaenoic acid (g) 0.07 (0.06–0.08) 0.07 (0.06–0.08) 0.06 (0.06–0.06)** 0.08 (0.08–0.08)*
α-linolenic acid (g) 1.40 (1.35–1.44) 1.38 (1.26–1.5) 1.35 (1.31–1.4) 1.53 (1.5–1.55)***
Vitamin K (μg) 76 (72–79) 72 (65–80) 72 (68–76) 100 (97–103)***
Choline (mg) 291 (282–300) 269 (251–287) 294 (285–302) 317 (312–322)***
Potassium (mg) 2586 (2555–2618) 2252 (2113–2392) 2586 (2555–2618) 2222 (2159–2286)***
α-carotene (μg) 320 (292–349) 352 (274–430) 516 (488–544)*** 516 (488–544)***
β-carotene (μg) 1417 (1331–1504) 1395 (1187–1603) 2136 (2054–2218)** 2136 (2054–2218)***
β-cryptoxanthin (μg) 84 (78–90) 102 (81–123) 78 (73–83) 112 (108–116)***
Lutein and zeaxanthin (μg) 998 (938–1058) 1040 (914–1166) 931 (875–987) 1418 (1362–1473)***
Lycopene (μg) 7514 (6764–8264) 7939 (6436–9442) 6184 (5627–6742)** 8218 (7838–8598)
  1. All estimates adjusted for age, gender, race-ethnicity, education, marital status, household size, health insurance, BMI, income-to-poverty ratio, and whether the dietary recall was on a weekday or weekend
  2. aReference group
  3. bDaily nutrient recommendations are Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) unless otherwise specified. National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary reference intakes: The essential guide to nutrient requirements. Jennifer J. Otten, Jennifer Pitzi Hellwig, Linda D. Meyers (eds.). National Academies Press, Washington, DC
  4. cRecommendation is less than 10% of total energy. US Department of Health and Human Services & US Department of Agriculture. 2015–2020. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. Available at: http://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/ (verified 29 March 2016)
  5. dRetinol Activity Equivalent (RAE)
  6. eDietary Folate Equivalent (DFE)
  7. 6Tolerable upper intake level limit (UL). National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine. 2006. Dietary reference intakes: The essential guide to nutrient requirements. Jennifer J. Otten, Jennifer Pitzi Hellwig, Linda D. Meyers (eds.). National Academies Press, Washington, DC
  8. *Different than food insecure non-participants at P < 0.017 (Bonferroni adjusted for multiple comparisons)
  9. **Different than food insecure non-participants at P < 0.003 (Bonferroni adjusted for multiple comparisons)
  10. ***Different than food insecure non-participants at P < 0.0003 (Bonferroni adjusted for multiple comparisons)