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Table 3 Changes in the adolescents’ fatty acids levels (% of total fatty acids), serum 25(OH)D, serum ferritin and urinary iodine concentration during the intervention

From: The effects of fatty fish intake on adolescents’ nutritional status and associations with attention performance: results from the FINS-TEENS randomized controlled trial

Variables Fish Meat Supplement   
Post Change P a Post Change P a Post Change P a P b P c
LA, 18:2n-6 (%) 10.8 ± 1.4 0.0 ± 1.3 0.90 10.9 ± 1.2 0.1 ± 1.4 0.58 10.9 ± 1.3 − 0.1 ± 1.4 0.64 0.80 0.77
AA, 20:4n-6 (%) 13.4 ± 1.4 −2.2 ± 1.6 < 0.001 13.7 ± 1.3 − 1.9 ± 1.6 < 0.001 12.8 ± 1.4 − 2.8 ± 1.7 < 0.001 < 0.001d,f < 0.001d,f
EPA, 20:5n-3 (%) 0.8 ± 0.3 − 0.1 ± 0.2 0.002 0.8 ± 0.4 − 0.1 ± 0.3 < 0.001 1.3 ± 0.5 0.5 ± 0.4 < 0.001 < 0.001d,f < 0.001d,e,f
DPA, 22:5n-3 (%) 2.0 ± 0.3 − 0.3 ± 0.3 < 0.001 2.0 ± 0.3 − 0.4 ± 0.3 < 0.001 2.3 ± 0.3 0.0 ± 0.4 0.59 < 0.001d,f < 0.001d,f
DHA, 22:6n-3 (%) 5.6 ± 1.0 0.6 ± 0.8 < 0.001 5.3 ± 1.1 0.3 ± 0.8 < 0.001 6.0 ± 0.8 1.2 ± 0.9 < 0.001 < 0.001d,e,f < 0.001e,f
Omega-3 Indexg 6.4 ± 1.2 0.6 ± 0.9 < 0.001 6.1 ± 1.3 0.2 ± 1.0 0.016 7.3 ± 1.2 1.6 ± 1.1 < 0.001 < 0.001d,e,f < 0.001d,e,f
s-25(OH)D (nmol/L) 54.4 ± 16.7 5.3 ± 14.9 < 0.001 51.6 ± 17.3 1.8 ± 12.2 0.07 50.9 ± 18.4 2.6 ± 11.7 0.009 0.07 0.032
s-Ferritin (μg/l) 39.9 ± 21.4 − 0.7 ± 18.1 0.66 38.1 ± 22.7 − 3.0 ± 14.8 0.017 37.0 ± 23.9 −3.3 ± 18.7 0.040 0.40 0.58
UIC (μg/L) 107.7 ± 72.2 − 11.6 ± 66.9 0.47 125.3 ± 70.3 2.4 ± 73.7 0.70 125.6 ± 65.8 0.9 ± 76.0 0.89 0.053 0.08
  1. Abbreviations: AA arachidonic acid, LA linoleic acid, EPA eicosapentaenoic acid, DPA Docosapentaenoic acid, DHA docosahexaenoic acid, s-25(OH)D serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, s-Ferritin serum ferritin, UIC; urinary iodine concentration
  2. Total numbers may vary between variables due to varying numbers of missing data
  3. aP-value for comparison within intervention groups, paired samples t-test
  4. bP-value for comparison between intervention groups. ANCOVA (adjusted for the current outcome at baseline)
  5. cP-value for comparison between intervention groups. ANCOVA (adjusted for the current outcome at baseline and dietary compliance (i.e. the total intake of fish, meat or supplements)) during the trial
  6. dp < 0.01 fish - supplement, e p < 0.01 fish - meat, f p < 0.01 supplement - meat (Bonferroni correction for post-hoc comparison between intervention groups)
  7. eThe content of EPA and DHA expressed as percent of total fatty acids [6]
  8. Data given as mean ± SD