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Table 2 Multivariable-adjusted linear associationsa (beta co-efficient, 95% confidence interval) of major dietary patterns with cardio-metabolic risk factors in the Indian Migration Study participants (N = 7067)

From: Association between empirically derived dietary patterns with blood lipids, fasting blood glucose and blood pressure in adults - the India migration study

Food patterns Tertiles Total cholesterol mmol/L LDL-C mmol/L Triglycerides mmol/L HDL-C mmol/L Fasting glucoseb mmol/L Systolic blood pressure mm/Hg Diastolic blood pressure mm/Hg
Age, sex adjusted Fully adjusteda Age, sex adjusted Fully adjusteda Age, sex adjusted Fully adjusteda Age, sex adjusted Fully adjusteda Age, sex adjusted Fully adjusteda Age, sex adjusted Fully adjusteda Age, sex adjusted Fully adjusteda
Cereal savoury food pattern
 TI Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 T2 −0.03 (−0.09, 0.03) −0.05 (− 0.15, 0.04) 0.04 (− 0.01, 0.10) − 0.03 (− 0.12, 0.05) 0.01 (− 0.02, 0.05) − 0.009 (− 0.06, 0.04) − 0.07 (− 0.09, − 0.06) − 0.01 (− 0.03, 0.01) −0.37 (− 0.46, − 0.29) 0.007 (− 0.07, 0.08) 1.8 (0.8, 2.7) 0.1 (−1.1,1.3) 1.9 (1.2, 2.5) − 0.1 (− 0.9, 0.7)
 T3 0.12 (0.05, 0.19) − 0.009 (− 0.13, 0.12) 0.19 (0.13, 0.25) 0.001 (− 0.11, 0.11) 0.09 (0.04, 0.14) 0.01 (− 0.06, 0.1) −0.10 (− 0.12, − 0.09) −0.02 (− 0.04, 0.007) −0.30 (− 0.40,-0.21) −0.01 (− 0.11, 0.08) 1.3 (0.3, 2.3) −0.7 (−2.4, 0.9) 2.5 (1.9, 3.2) − 0.9 (− 1.9, 0.2)
 p-trend 0.001 0.946 < 0.0001 0.880 < 0.0001 0.540 < 0.0001 0.153 < 0.0001 0.745 Ref Ref Ref Ref
Fruit-veg-sweet-snack pattern
 TI Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 T2 0.06 (−0.002, 0.13) 0.02 (−0.05, 0.1) 0.03 (− 0.03, 0.08) 0.01 (− 0.05, 0.08) 0.03 (− 0.01, 0.07) 0.02 (− 0.02, 0.07) 0.02 (0.008, 0.03) −0.0001 (− 0.01, 0.01) 0.06 (− 0.01, 0.05) −0.01 (− 0.08, 0.06) −0.7 (−1.7, 2.0) 0.3 (− 0.8, 1.3) −0.2 (− 0.8, 0.5) −0.6 (− 0.06, 1.3)
 T3 0.04 (− 0.02, 0.11) −0.02 (− 0.11, 0.07) 0.01 (− 0.05, 0.07) −0.01 (− 0.09, 0.06) 0.02 (− 0.02, 0.06) −0.02 (− 0.08, 0.03) 0.01 (0.002, 0.03) −0.005 (− 0.02, 0.01) 0.03 (− 0.11, 0.03) −0.06 (− 0.14, 0.02) −0.3(− 1.2, 0.7) 1.2 (− 0.1, 2.5) −0.02 (− 0.6, 0.6) 1.2 (0.8, 1.2)
 p-trend 0.209 0.604 0.715 0.661 0.341 0.472 0.025 0.624 0.331 0.143 0.555 0.067 0.953 0.014
Animal food pattern (Fish-red meat-egg-poultry)
 TI Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref Ref
 T2 0.004 (−0.06, 0.06) 0.01 (−0.05, 0.08) 0.006 (−0.05, 0.06) 0.002 (− 0.05, 0 .06) 0.02 (− 0.01, 0.07) 0.02 (− 0.03, 0.06) −0.01 (− 0.02, 0.003) 0.006 (− 0.008, 0.02) −0.08 (− 0.17, − 0.001) 0.01 (− 0.05, 0.07) 1.4 (0.5,2.4) 0.5 (− 0.4, 1.5) 1.0 (0.4, 1.6) 0.2 (− 0.4, 0.8)
 T3 0.17 (0.10, 0.24) 0.10 (0.02, 0.17) 0.15 (0.09, 0.1) 0.07 (0.004, 0.14) 0.11 (0.06, 0.16) 0.04 (−0.01, 0.09) −0.02 (− 0.03, − 0.006) 0.02 (0.004, 0.04) −0.09 (− 0.18, − 0.009) 0.09 (0.01, 0.16) 2.8 (1.8,3.8) 1.2 (0.1, 2.3) 2.9 (2.3, 3.6) 0.9 (0.2, 1.5)
 p-trend < 0.0001 0.013 < 0.0001 0.041 < 0.0001 0.181 0.005 0.016 0.029 0.021 < 0.001 0.032 < 0.001 0.013
  1. aRobust standard error adjusted for age (continuous in years), sex (male/female), migration status (rural, urban, urban migrant), site (Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad, Bangalore), SLI (continuous score), education (no formal education, primary school, secondary school and beyond secondary school), BMI (continuous in kg/m2), total energy (continuous in kcal/day), physical activity (continuous in totalMETS), tobacco (never, past, current), alcohol (never, past, current), use of any regular medication for chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and/or food supplements (yes/no), sib-pair
  2. bAnalysis excluded known diabetics (n = 486)