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Table 3 GC-MS analysis of fatty acids in the weight-maintenance (control) and weight-loss groups at baseline and 12-week follow-up

From: Effect of weight loss on circulating fatty acid profiles in overweight subjects with high visceral fat area: a 12-week randomized controlled trial

Fatty acids (Relative peak area) Weight-maintenance group
(n = 38)
Weight-loss group
(n = 37)
P a P b P c P d
Baseline   Follow-up Baseline   Follow-up
Saturated fatty acids 7.292 ± 0.211   7.287 ± 0.215 7.166 ± 0.177   6.565 ± 0.243* 0.650 0.029   
Change   − 0.005 ± 0.216    − 0.601 ± 0.228     0.062 0.027
Lauric acid (C12:0) 0.033 ± 0.003   0.040 ± 0.005 0.027 ± 0.002   0.027 ± 0.003 0.063 0.032   
 Change   0.007 ± 0.005    0.000 ± 0.003     0.313 0.067
Myristic acid (C14:0) 0.307 ± 0.022   0.319 ± 0.029 0.260 ± 0.017   0.241 ± 0.031 0.105 0.068   
 Change   0.013 ± 0.028    − 0.019 ± 0.029     0.435 0.210
Pentadecylic acid (C15:0) 0.045 ± 0.002   0.046 ± 0.003 0.041 ± 0.002   0.046 ± 0.006 0.182 0.978   
 Change   0.001 ± 0.002    0.005 ± 0.006     0.505 0.466
Palmitic acid (C16:0) 4.762 ± 0.148   4.729 ± 0.135 4.646 ± 0.118   4.333 ± 0.113* 0.545 0.028   
 Change   − 0.033 ± 0.152    − 0.313 ± 0.120     0.155 0.033
Stearic acid (C18:0) 2.011 ± 0.055   2.014 ± 0.059 2.054 ± 0.048   1.778 ± 0.108** 0.557 0.058   
 Change   0.004 ± 0.056    − 0.276 ± 0.100     0.016 0.021
Arachidic acid (C20:0) 0.040 ± 0.002   0.041 ± 0.002 0.041 ± 0.001   0.041 ± 0.002 0.623 0.859   
 Change   0.001 ± 0.002    0.000 ± 0.003     0.808 0.978
Behenic acid (C22:0) 0.096 ± 0.005   0.098 ± 0.004 0.098 ± 0.004   0.099 ± 0.004 0.663 0.880   
 Change   0.003 ± 0.004    0.001 ± 0.005     0.759 0.938
Monounsaturated fatty acids 1.472 ± 0.052   1.457 ± 0.054 1.442 ± 0.046   1.235 ± 0.078** 0.663 0.021   
Change   − 0.015 ± 0.050    − 0.207 ± 0.068     0.026 0.017
Palmitoleic acid (C16:1, n-7) 0.196 ± 0.011   0.197 ± 0.012 0.192 ± 0.011   0.156 ± 0.012** 0.777 0.018   
 Change   0.001 ± 0.011    − 0.035 ± 0.009     0.013 0.006
cis-10-Heptadecenoic acid (C17:1, n-7) 0.015 ± 0.001   0.014 ± 0.001 0.014 ± 0.001   0.014 ± 0.003 0.264 0.998   
 Change   0.000 ± 0.001    0.001 ± 0.003     0.675 0.709
Oleic acid (C18:1, n-9) 1.193 ± 0.041   1.176 ± 0.042 1.171 ± 0.036   0.997 ± 0.066** 0.693 0.024   
 Change   − 0.016 ± 0.039    − 0.174 ± 0.057     0.025 0.018
Eicosenoic acid (C20:1, n-9) 0.011 ± 0.001   0.012 ± 0.001 0.010 ± 0.001   0.011 ± 0.002 0.158 0.638   
 Change   0.001 ± 0.001    0.001 ± 0.001     0.889 0.947
Erucic acid (C22:1, n-9) 0.008 ± 0.001   0.007 ± 0.001 0.007 ± 0.001   0.008 ± 0.001 0.576 0.476   
 Change   − 0.001 ± 0.001    0.001 ± 0.001     0.278 0.321
Nervonic acid (C24:1, n-9) 0.049 ± 0.002   0.050 ± 0.003 0.048 ± 0.002   0.049 ± 0.002 0.669 0.731   
 Change   0.001 ± 0.002    0.000 ± 0.003     0.979 0.824
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6) 2.965 ± 0.065   2.971 ± 0.069 2.844 ± 0.070   2.800 ± 0.067 0.208 0.080   
 Change   0.006 ± 0.055    − 0.044 ± 0.071     0.577 0.212
Linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6) 2.203 ± 0.052   2.194 ± 0.054 2.097 ± 0.051   2.089 ± 0.050 0.149 0.156   
 Change   − 0.009 ± 0.049    − 0.008 ± 0.052     0.992 0.449
γ-linolenic acid (C18:3, n-6) 0.038 ± 0.003   0.041 ± 0.005 0.030 ± 0.002   0.028 ± 0.002 0.065 0.033   
 Change   0.003 ± 0.004    − 0.002 ± 0.002     0.222 0.220
Eicosadienoic acid (C20:2, n-6) 0.022 ± 0.001   0.023 ± 0.001 0.021 ± 0.001   0.016 ± 0.001*** 0.519 < 0.001   
 Change   0.001 ± 0.001    − 0.005 ± 0.001     < 0.001 < 0.001
Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C20:3, n-6) 0.122 ± 0.005   0.125 ± 0.006 0.111 ± 0.005   0.096 ± 0.006* 0.168 0.001   
 Change   0.004 ± 0.005    − 0.015 ± 0.007     0.028 0.003
Arachidonic acid (C20:4, n-6) 0.547 ± 0.018   0.553 ± 0.020 0.550 ± 0.020   0.537 ± 0.021 0.927 0.584   
 Change   0.006 ± 0.013    − 0.013 ± 0.019     0.421 0.419
Docosatetraenoic acid (C22:4, n-6) 0.033 ± 0.002   0.034 ± 0.002 0.034 ± 0.002   0.033 ± 0.002 0.826 0.670   
 Change   0.001 ± 0.002    − 0.001 ± 0.002     0.490 0.505
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3) 0.477 ± 0.025   0.496 ± 0.040 0.477 ± 0.028   0.469 ± 0.034 0.999 0.619   
 Change   0.018 ± 0.035    − 0.008 ± 0.025     0.542 0.541
α-linolenic acid (C18:3, n-3) 0.115 ± 0.010   0.121 ± 0.009 0.099 ± 0.007   0.093 ± 0.010 0.182 0.037   
 Change   0.005 ± 0.008    - 0.007 ± 0.008     0.296 0.114
Eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5, n-3) 0.112 ± 0.008   0.115 ± 0.016 0.110 ± 0.010   0.116 ± 0.013 0.867 0.978   
 Change   0.003 ± 0.015    0.006 + ±0.012     0.894 0.926
Docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5, n-3) 0.048 ± 0.003   0.050 ± 0.004 0.046 ± 0.002   0.044 ± 0.003 0.696 0.193   
 Change   0.002 ± 0.004    − 0.003 ± 0.002     0.257 0.195
Docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, n-3) 0.203 ± 0.016   0.210 ± 0.024 0.223 ± 0.019   0.217 ± 0.018 0.425 0.808   
 Change   0.007 ± 0.015    − 0.005 ± 0.012     0.513 0.527
Ratio n-6/n-3 6.786 ± 0.352   7.243 ± 0.493 6.600 ± 0.346   7.519 ± 0.673 0.707 0.742   
 Change   0.457 ± 0.421    0.919 ± 0.544     0.502 0.513
C16 Δ9-desaturasea 0.041 ± 0.001   0.041 ± 0.002 0.041 ± 0.002   0.036 ± 0.002** 0.992 0.058   
 Change   0.000 ± 0.001    − 0.005 ± 0.002     0.016 0.014
C18 Δ9-desaturaseb 0.593 ± 0.012   0.583 ± 0.011 0.569 ± 0.009   0.561 ± 0.010 0.111 0.144   
 Change   − 0.010 ± 0.013    − 0.008 ± 0.012     0.903 0.331
Δ6-desaturasec 0.017 ± 0.002   0.019 ± 0.002 0.014 ± 0.001   0.014 ± 0.001 0.122 0.049   
 Change   0.001 ± 0.002    − 0.001 ± 0.001     0.264 0.211
Δ5-desaturased 4.725 ± 0.201   4.689 ± 0.214 5.141 ± 0.190   6.157 ± 0.336** 0.137 < 0.001   
 Change   − 0.035 ± 0.154    1.017 ± 0.351     0.008 0.001
Elongasee 0.426 ± 0.008   0.428 ± 0.007 0.444 ± 0.006   0.406 ± 0.014* 0.092 0.161   
 Change   0.001 ± 0.010    − 0.038 ± 0.014     0.024 0.101
  1. Mean ± SE. tested following logarithmic transformation. Pa-values derived from an independent t-test between the groups at baseline. Pb-values derived from an independent t-test between the groups at follow up. Pc-values derived from an independent t-test between the groups at changed values. Pd-values are Pc-values adjusted with the baseline values. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001 derived from a paired t-test. aC16 Δ9-desaturase = palmitoleic acid/palmitic acid. bC18 Δ9-desaturase = oleic acid/stearic acid. cΔ6-desatuarse = γ-linolenic acid/linoleic acid. dΔ5-desaturase = arachidonic acid/dihomo-γ-linolenic acid. eElongase activity = stearic acid/palmitic acid