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Table 2 Macronutrient intake, lifestyle factors and education level according to metabolic health phenotype

From: Dietary patterns and physical activity in the metabolically (un)healthy obese: the Dutch Lifelines cohort study

  Men Women
  MUO Intermediate MHO MUO Intermediate MHO
N 1959 (56.9) 1131 (32.9) b 352 (10.2) b 2058 (35.3) 2348 (40.3) b 1422 (24.4) b
Energy intake (kcal/day) 2072 ± 488 2088 ± 496 2084 ± 492 1724 ± 443 1722 ± 451 1731 ± 465
Protein (% EI) 15.7 ± 2.3 15.6 ± 2.4 15.7 ± 2.5 16.4 ± 2.7 16.5 ± 2.7 16.4 ± 2.7
 Plant 6.1 ± 1.0 6.1 ± 1.0 6.2 ± 1.1 6.1 ± 1.0 6.1 ± 0.9 6.1 ± 1.0
 Animal 9.5 ± 2.5 9.4 ± 2.6 9.6 ± 2.8 10.4 ± 2.9 10.4 ± 2.8 10.3 ± 2.9
Carbohydrates (% EI) 45.0 ± 6.1 44.9 ± 6.4 45.2 ± 6.3 46.2 ± 6.3 46.0 ± 6.1 45.9 ± 6.2
 Mono- and disaccharides 19.6 ± 5.8 19.5 ± 5.5 19.7 ± 5.3 20.6 ± 5.8 20.6 ± 5.4 20.5 ± 5.2
 Polysaccharides 25.4 ± 4.8 25.3 ± 4.8 25.4 ± 4.7 25.5 ± 4.4 25.3 ± 4.5 25.3 ± 4.6
Fat (% EI) 36.0 ± 5.1 36.0 ± 5.1 36.0 ± 4.6 35.9 ± 5.4 35.9 ± 5.2 36.1 ± 5.1
Use of (self-) prescribed diet (%) 5.1 4.9 6.6 12.6 12.2 10.6
Dietary pattern score (Z-scores)       
 Savory snacks and sweets −0.06 −0.01 0.38 * −0.30 −0.01 0.46 b
 Alcohol and meat 0.02 0.04 −0.23 0.08 0.03 −0.16 a
 Bread, potatoes and sweet snacks 0.01 0.02 −0.11 0.24 −0.05 −0.25 b
 Fruit, vegetables and fish −0.03 0.05 0.00 −0.13 0.03 0.15 a
MVPA (min/week) 285 [60–960] 360 [120–999] a 360 [140–1337] a 230 [60–600] 270 [100–646] a 242 [90–720] a
Moderate PA score
 T1 ‘low’ 45.7 43.4 41.5 48.0 43.2 a 43.1a
 T2 ‘middle’ 21.1 21.9 23.6 20.8 23.2 20.7
 T3 ‘high’ 33.2 34.7 34.9 31.2 33.6 36.1a
Vigorous PA score
 T1 ‘low’ 36.1 31.2 a 25.9 a 36.2 33.6 32.5
 T2 ‘middle’ 33.5 33.7 30.4 30.0 31.0 33.1
 T3 ‘high’ 30.4 35.1a 43.8 b 33.8 35.5 34.4
Smoking (%)
 Non 33.4 40.5 a 47.7 b 41.2 46.8 a 49.2 b
 Former 42.0 41.8 36.6 38.6 38.9 37.9
 Current 24.6 17.7 b 15.6 a 20.2 14.3 b 12.9 b
Alcohol use (%)
 Non 15.0 9.7 b 9.1* 39.2 31.4 b 27.8 b
  ≤ 2 drinks 70.4 75.5 a 79.3 a 58.0 65.4b 70.0 b
  > 2 drinks 14.7 14.8 11.6 2.8 3.2 2.3
Education level (%)
 Low 39.7 39.4 36.4 46.8 40.1b 32.2 b
 Middle 37.8 38.0 41.5 39.3 42.0 43.0
 High 22.5 22.5 22.2 13.8 17.9 a 24.8 b
  1. Data is presented as mean ± SD or median [interquartile range]. * denotes a P ≤ 0.05, a denotes a P ≤ 0.01, and b denotes a P ≤ 0.0001. EI energy intake, MUO metabolically unhealthy obesity, MHO metabolically healthy obesity, MVPA moderate-vigorous physical active, PA physical activity. Education level: low (no formal education, only primary school or intermediate vocational education), middle (higher secondary education) or high (higher vocational education and university)