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Table 1 Characteristics of 16 randomized controlled trials included in analysisa

From: Lack of efficacy of pomegranate supplementation for glucose management, insulin levels and sensitivity: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, publication year Sample Size Study design Details of participants selection Sex (M/F) Age (years)b BMI (kg/m2)b Intervention group Control group Duration (weeks) Location FBG at baseline (T vs. C)b Outcomes of measures
Sumner, 2005 45 R, DB, P Patients with coronary heart disease 40/5 69.0 ± 10.0 28.5 ± 5.6 PJ consumption; 240 ml/day Placebo (modified sports beverage) 12 USA T: 113.0 ± 30.0
C: 116.0 ± 51.0
FBG, HbA1C
Cerda, 2006 30 R, DB, P Patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease NA 61.7 ± 10.0 31.0 ± 5.4 PJ consumption; 400 ml/day Placebo 5 Spain T: 114.5 ± 25.5
C: 113.7 ± 51.5
FBG,
Heber, 2007a 42 R, DB, P Overweight individuals with increased waist size NA 40–70 33.5 ± 8.5 PE extract; 710 mg/day Placebo 4 USA T1: 95.3 ± 10.4
T2: 89.2 ± 7.6
FBG,
Heber, 2007b 41 R, DB, P Overweight individuals with increased waist size NA 40–70 33.5 ± 8.5 PE extract; 1420 mg/day Placebo 4 USA T: 89.2 ± 7.6
C: 97.8 ± 9.0
FBG,
Mirmiran, 2010 45 R, DB, P Subjects with hyperlipidaemic NA 53.0 ± 9.0 27.7 ± 3.4 PSO consumption; 400 mg/day Placebo 4 Iran NA FBI, HOMA-IR
González-Ortiz, 2011 20 R, DB, P Patients with obesity NA 37.3 ± 9.5 34.5 ± 3.7 PJ consumption; 120 ml/day Placebo 4 Mexico T: 84.6 ± 5.4
C: 84.6 ± 9.0
FBG, FBI
Tsang, 2012 28 R, DB, C Healthy volunteers 12/16 50.4 ± 6.1 26.8 ± 3.4 PJ consumption; 500 ml/day Placebo (water plus the equivalent carbohydrates) 4 UK T: 88.0 ± 6.7
C: 83.7 ± 8.6
FBG, FBI, HOMA-IR
Asgary, 2014 21 R, SB, P Subjects with hypertension 6/15 52.9 ± 10.8 27.4 ± 3.8 PJ consumption; 150 ml/day Placebo (water) 2 Iran T: 90.1 ± 6.1
C: 87.8 ± 10.9
FBG, FBI
Park, 2014 77 R, DB, P Overweight women 0/77 41.5 ± 12.5 28.4 ± 2.2 PJ consumption; 200 ml/day Placebo (beverage) 8 Korea T: 98.5 ± 8.2
C: 97.1 ± 9.4
FBG, FBI, HOMA-IR
Sohrab, 2014 44 R, DB, P Patients with T2DM NA 55.9 ± 6.7 29.0 ± 4.0 PJ consumption; 250 ml/day Placebo 12 Iran T: 160.3 ± 47.8
C: 148.7 ± 42.1
FBG, FBI, HOMA-IR, HbA1C
Hosseini, 2016 42 R, DB, P Overweight and obese individuals NA 30–60 31.8 ± 4.5 PE supplementation; 1000 mg/day Placebo 4 Australia T: 98.6 ± 10.4
C: 99.6 ± 14.9
FBG, FBI, HOMA-IR
Faghihimani, 2016 74 R, DB, P Patients with T2DM 26/52 50.0 ± 6.8 26.5 ± 2.6 PSO capsules consumption; 2000 mg/day Placebo(medium chain triacylglycerol) 8 Iran T: 149.0 ± 39.0
C: 156.0 ± 56.0
FBG, FBI, HOMA-IR, HbA1C
Sohrab, 2016 60 R, SB, P Patients with T2DM NA 54.7 ± 8.4 27.3 ± 3.7 PJ consumption; 200 ml/day Placebo 6 Iran T: 158.1 ± 41.1
C: 193.0 ± 63.3
FBG,
Fuster-Munoz, 2016a 14 R, DB, P Endurance-based athletes 14/0 35.3 ± 8.8 NA PJ consumption; 200 ml/day seasonal fruit 3 Spain T: 79.0 ± 8.0
C: 74.4 ± 9.5
FBG,
Fuster-Munoz, 2016b 14 R, DB, P Endurance-based athletes 14/0 35.3 ± 10.4 NA PJ diluted 1:1 with water consumption; 200 ml/day seasonal fruit 3 Spain T: 73.3 ± 8.0
C: 74.4 ± 9.5
FBG,
Moazzen, 2017 30 R, DB, C Patients with metabolic syndrome 13/17 51.57 ± 10.0 NA PJ consumption; 500 ml/day Placebo 1 Iran T: 144.6 ± 11.9
C: 144.7 ± 12.3
FBG, FBI, HOMA-IR
  1. a R randomized, DB double-blind, SB single-blind, C crossover, P paralle, F female, M male, NA not available, BMI body mass index, PE pomegranate ellagitannin, PJ pomegranate juice, PSO pomegranate seed oil, T Treatment group, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, C control group, FBG fasting blood glucose, FBI fasting blood insulin, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance
  2. bValues are provided as mean ± SD, except the studies conducted by Heber et al. and Hosseini et al. The values in these studies were