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Table 4 Proportions of subjects with improvements in gastrointestinal symptoms after consuming milk containing A2 β-casein relative to milk containing A1 β-casein (all study sites combined)

From: Effects of cow’s milk beta-casein variants on symptoms of milk intolerance in Chinese adults: a multicentre, randomised controlled study

Measurement Improvement Borborygmus Flatulence Bloating   Abdominal Pain
   n % n % n % n %
1 h (n=600) No symptom 50 8.3% 61 10.2% 112 18.7% 119 19.8%
Significant improvement 9 1.5% 9 1.5% 6 1.0% 1 0.2%
Slight improvement 310 51.7% 314 52.3% 279 46.5% 88 14.7%
No difference 231 38.5% 216 36.0% 203 33.8% 392 65.3%
3 h (n=600) No symptom 33 5.5% 29 4.8% 62 10.3% 240 40.0%
Significant improvement 8 1.3% 9 1.5% 5 0.8% 6 1.0%
Slight improvement 362 60.3% 341 56.8% 338 56.3% 131 21.8%
No difference 197 32.8% 221 36.8% 195 32.5% 223 37.2%
12 h (n=400)a No symptom 51 12.8% 102 25.5% 83 20.8% 121 30.3%
Significant improvement 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 1 0.3% 0 0.0%
Slight improvement 4 1.0% 24 6.0% 105 26.3% 140 35.0%
No difference 345 86.3% 274 68.5% 211 52.8% 139 34.8%
Measurement Improvement Stool Frequency Stool Consistency All Symptoms   
   n % n % n %   
1 h (n=600) No symptom 120 20.0% 128 21.3% 16 2.7%   
Significant improvement 1 0.2% 1 0.2% 282 47.0%   
Slight improvement 65 10.8% 61 10.2% 236 39.3%   
No difference 414 69.0% 410 68.3% 66 11.0%   
3 h (n=600) No symptom 304 50.7% 310 51.7% 4 0.7%   
Significant improvement 0 0.0% 1 0.2% 480 80.0%   
Slight improvement 114 19.0% 87 14.5% 100 16.7%   
No difference 182 30.3% 202 33.7% 16 2.7%   
12 h (n=400)a No symptom 199 49.8% 202 50.5% 21 5.3%   
Significant improvement 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 127 31.8%   
Slight improvement 25 6.3% 22 5.5% 186 46.5%   
No difference 176 44.0% 176 44.0% 66 16.5%   
  1. aThe VAS was not assessed at 12 h in Shanghai