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Table 2 Clinical characteristics, lifestyles and carotid measurements of the study population

From: Diet quality and carotid atherosclerosis in intermediate cardiovascular risk individuals

  OVERALL (n = 500) MEN (n = 272; 54.4%) WOMEN (n = 228; 45.6%) p
Age (years) 60.3 ± 8.4 59.0 ± 8.5 61.9 ± 8.0 0.002
Level of education     <0.01
 Higher education 114 (22.8) 78 (28.7) 36 (15.8)
 High school 153 (30.6) 95 (34.9) 58 (25.4)
 Primary studies 233 (46.6) 99 (36.4) 134 (58.8)
Smoking (n, %) 107 (21.4) 64 (23.5) 43 (18.9) 0.229
Physical activity (METs/h/week) 3541 ± 3358 4175 ± 3977 2784 ± 2202 <0.01
BMI (Kg/m2) 28.3 ± 4.2 28.3 ± 3.5 28.2 ± 4.9 0.733
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 133.9 ± 16.6 136.3 ± 15.9 131. ± 17.0 0.004
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 81.3 ± 10.8 82.9 ± 10.1 79.3 ± 11.2 0.003
Heart rate (bpm) 70.3 ± 11.2 69.1 ± 11.7 71.7 ± 10.5 0.010
Obesity, BMI ≥30 (n, %) 137 (27.4) 69 (25.4) 68 (29.8) 0.270
Hypertension (n, %) 401 (80.2) 226 (83.1) 175 (76.8) 0.002
Diabetes (n, %) 138 (27.6) 87 (32.0) 51 (22.4) 0.016
Dyslipidemia (n, %) 418 (83.6) 221 (81.39) 197 (86.4) 0.146
Antihypertensive (n, %) 266 (53.2) 146 (53.7) 120 (52.6) 0.857
Antidiabetics (n, %) 82 (16.4) 52 (19.1) 30 (13.2) 0.089
Lipid lowering drugs (n, %) 185 (37.0) 99 (36.4) 86 (37.7) 0.781
Diet
 Diet Quality Index (total score) 40.08 ± 2.79 40.28 ± 2.83 39.85 ± 2.74 0.087
Vascular structure measurements
 IMT (mean) 0.73 ± 0.09 0.75 ± 0.10 0.72 ± 0.08 0.002
 IMT (maximum) 0.90 ± 0.11 0.92 ± 0.12 0.88 ± 0.10 0.003
 Presence of plaque (n, %) 83 (16.6) 58 (21.3) 25 (11.0) 0.002
 Carotid target organ damage (n, %) 85 (17.0) 59 (21.7) 26 (11.4) 0.003
  1. METs metabolic equivalents, BMI body mass index, bpm beats per minute, IMT carotid intima media thickness
  2. Categorical variables are expressed as n (%) and continuous variables as mean ± standard deviation
  3. T-student test. p: statistically significant differences (p < 0.05)