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Table 2 Characteristics of participant groups by amino acid profile cluster: significant differences in amino acid levels and symptom indices

From: Diverse characteristics of the urinary excretion of amino acids in humans and the use of amino acid supplementation to reduce fatigue and sub-health in adults

  Pre-supplement large cohort (n = 151)
Characteristic Cluster 1 n = 48 Cluster 2 n = 33 Cluster 3 n = 70 p value
Mean Agea 26.0 (1.2) 37.8 (2.3) 31.9 (1.6) C1 < C2 = C3 p < 0.001
Mean BMIa 24.8 (0.4) 24.2 (0.7) 25.4 (0.4) ns
Proportion Males (number)a 75% (36) 30.3% (10) 75.7% (53) C2 < C1 = C3 p < 0.001
Caucasian (%)a 95.1% 100% 93.8% ns
Urine Amino Acids  
  Total amino acids μmole/L 6,609 (495) 4,339 (462) 4,425 (306) C1 > C2 = C3 p < 0.01
  Histidine 2,152 (185) 599 (76) 886 (74) C1 > C2 = C3 p < 0.0001
  Glycine 1,077 (86) 1,412 (157) 861 (68) C2 > C3 p < 0.001
  Glutamine 626 (63) 443 (46) 480 (29) C1 > C2 = C3 p < 0.05
  Serine 411 (49) 320 (34) 279 (16) C1 > C3 p < 0.05
  Alanine 313 (29) 232 (25) 236 (18) C1 > C3 p < 0.05
  Tyrosine 129 (13) 57 (8) 77 (5) C1 > C2 = C3 p < 0.0001
  Branched chain amino acids 106 (7) 62 (7) 84 (6) C1 > C2 = C3 p < 0.001
  Proline 5.0 (1.9) 9.1 (2.0) 10.7 (1.5) ns
Symptom Indices  
  Chalder total fatigue 12.8 (0.7) 16.0 (1.0) 13.4 (0.8) C2 > C1 p < 0.05
  Chalder mental fatigue 4.5 (0.3) 5.9 (0.4) 4.6 (0.3) C2 > C1 = C3 p < 0.05
  General fatigue index 3.2 (1.0) 11.2 (1.6) 8.3 (1.1) C2 > C1 p < 0.05
  Pain index 5.1 (0.8) 8.1 (1.3) 5.3 (0.7) ns
  Gastrointestinal index 1.7 (0.7) 3.8 (1.0) 2.0 (0.4) ns
  Sleep index 8.2 (1.0) 14.0 (1.9) 11.5 (1.2) C2 > C1 p < 0.05
  Vitality index 6.5 (1.2) 9.1 (1.3) 5.5 (0.8) ns
  1. Statistical tests: ANOVA, Tukey’s HSD for unequal sample sizes, *Chi square; mean (SEM)