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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the Health Examinees (HEXA) Study subjects by coffee consumption

From: Relationship between coffee consumption and stroke risk in Korean population: the Health Examinees (HEXA) Study

  N (%)
Daily Coffee Consumption, No. of Cups
  Male (n = 50439) Female (n = 96391)
variable None <1 1 to 3 ≥3 P-value None <1 1 to 3 ≥3 P-value
Number 6493 10141 19473 14332   18012 23015 40246 15118  
Age group (years)      <.0001      <.0001
 49 1844 (28.4) 3277 (32.3) 6349 (32.6) 6090 (42.5)   4536 (25.2) 8396 (36.5) 16276 (40.4) 8097 (53.6)  
 50-59 2240 (34.5) 3619 (35.7) 6876 (35.3) 5037 (35.2)   7347 (40.8) 9305 (40.4) 15865 (39.4) 5415 (35.8)  
 60-69 2127 (32.8) 2887 (28.5) 5605 (28.8) 2948 (20.6)   5574 (31.0) 4929 (21.4) 7558 (18.8) 1530 (10.1)  
 70+ 282 (4.3) 358 (3.5) 643 (3.3) 257 (1.8)   555 (3.1) 385 (1.7) 547 (1.4) 76 (0.5)  
Marital status      <.0001      <.0001
 Married 5693 (87.7) 8742 (86.2) 17540 (90.1) 12828 (89.5)   14231 (79.0) 18193 (79.1) 33261 (82.6) 12450 (82.4)  
 Single 457 (7.0) 775 (7.6) 1108 (5.7) 977 (6.8)   2931 (16.3) 3245 (14.1) 5403 (13.4) 2097 (13.9)  
Education level      <.0001      <.0001
 Under middle school 1733 (26.7) 2300 (22.7) 4395 (22.6) 3058 (21.3)   8372 (46.5) 8802 (38.2) 14283 (35.5) 4164 (27.5)  
 High school 2433 (37.5) 3985 (39.3) 7653 (39.3) 6002 (41.9)   6258 (34.7) 9509 (41.3) 16963 (42.2) 6949 (46.0)  
 College or more 2164 (33.3) 3664 (36.1) 7039 (36.2) 5005 (34.9)   2411 (13.4) 3856 (16.8) 7597 (18.9) 3638 (24.1)  
Household Income (10,000 won/month)      <.0001      <.0001
  < 200 1817 (28.0) 2637 (26.0) 4725 (24.3) 3134 (21.9)   6362 (35.3) 6567 (28.5) 11286 (28.0) 3664 (24.2)  
 200-400 2237 (34.5) 3628 (35.8) 7608 (39.1) 5927 (41.4)   5522 (30.7) 7631 (33.2) 14634 (36.4) 5719 (37.8)  
  > 400 1398 (21.5) 2276 (22.4) 4631 (23.8) 3643 (25.4)   2481 (13.8) 4074 (17.7) 8100 (20.1) 3701 (24.5)  
Body mass index (kg/m2)      <.0001      <.0001
  < 25 4333 (66.7) 6061 (59.8) 11528 (59.2) 8370 (58.4)   13385 (74.3) 16223 (70.5) 27883 (69.3) 10560 (69.9)  
  ≥ 25 2133 (32.9) 4021 (39.7) 7879 (40.5) 5925 (41.3)   4568 (25.4) 6681 (29.0) 12252 (30.4) 4505 (29.8)  
Smoking status      <.0001      <.0001
 Non-smoker 2694 (41.5) 3500 (34.5) 5439 (27.9) 2547 (17.8)   17596 (97.7) 22285 (96.8) 38765 (96.3) 13875 (91.8)  
 Ex-smoker 2651 (40.8) 4204 (41.5) 8234 (42.3) 4935 (34.4)   152 (0.8) 282 (1.2) 492 (1.2) 304 (2.0)  
 Current smoker 1130 (17.4) 2420 (23.9) 5766 (29.6) 6830 (47.7)   205 (1.1) 322 (1.4) 848 (2.1) 895 (5.9)  
Alcohol consumption      <.0001      <.0001
 Non-drinker 1725 (26.6) 1913 (18.9) 3683 (18.9) 2976 (20.8)   14679 (81.5) 15739 (68.4) 25434 (63.2) 8452 (55.9)  
 Ex-drinker 704 (10.8) 806 (8.0) 1269 (6.5) 902 (6.3)   361 (2.0) 563 (2.5) 748 (1.9) 348 (2.3)  
 Current drinker 4051 (62.4) 7407 (73.0) 14491 (74.4) 10438 (72.8)   2908 (16.1) 6604 (28.7) 13953 (34.7) 6276 (41.5)  
Regular exercise      <.0001      <.0001
 No 2620 (40.4) 4065 (40.1) 8332 (42.8) 7068 (49.3)   8816 (49.0) 10531 (45.8) 20246 (50.3) 8309 (55.0)  
 Yes 3858 (59.4) 6054 (59.7) 11095 (57.0) 7249 (50.6)   9143 (50.8) 12410 (53.9) 19910 (49.5) 6787 (44.9)  
Hypertension      <.0001      <.0001
 No 4174 (64.3) 6400 (63.1) 12382 (63.6) 9967 (69.5)   12613 (70.0) 16923 (73.5) 30334 (75.4) 12243 (81.0)  
 Yes 2318 (35.7) 3737 (36.9) 7089 (36.4) 4363 (30.4)   5383 (29.9) 6078 (26.4) 9897 (24.6) 2865 (19.0)  
Diabetes mellitus      <.0001      <.0001
 No 5352 (82.4) 8487 (83.7) 16481 (84.6) 12496 (87.2)   15903 (88.3) 20728 (90.1) 36870 (91.6) 14089 (93.2)  
 Yes 1140 (17.6) 1650 (16.3) 2987 (15.3) 1835 (12.8)   2101 (11.7) 2281 (9.9) 3362 (8.4) 1024 (6.8)  
Hyperlipidemia      0.0007      <.0001
 No 5498 (84.7) 8451 (83.3) 16240 (83.4) 11865 (83.8)   14356 (79.7) 18489 (80.3) 32401 (80.5) 12553 (83.0)  
 Yes 989 (15.2) 1687 (16.6) 3216 (16.5) 2465 (17.2)   3648 (20.3) 4514 (19.6) 7831 (19.5) 2561 (16.9)  
  1. p-values were calculated by chi-square test