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Table 2 Adjusted mean (SE) nutrient and energy intake for all grain clusters using NHANES 2005–2010, 2–18 years of age

From: Several grain dietary patterns are associated with better diet quality and improved shortfall nutrient intakes in US children and adolescents: a study focusing on the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  No Grains Cakes, Cookies & Pies Yeast Breads and Rolls Cereals Pasta, Cooked Cereals & Rice Crackers & Salty Snacks Pancakes, Waffles, French Toast and Other Grains Quick Breads
Energy or Nutrient Cluster 0 Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5 Cluster 6 Cluster 7
  LSM SE LSM SE P LSM SE P LSM SE P LSM SE P LSM SE P LSM SE P LSM SE P
Energy (kcal) 1497 90 1931 65 0.0009 1961 22 <0.0001 1694 65 0.0887 1913 62 0.0005 1946 29 <0.0001 2021 39 <0.0001 2021 36 <0.0001
Carbohydrate (g) 245 6.0 268 3.4 0.0016 256 1.2 0.0679 269 4.2 0.0012 272 3.4 0.0004 262 1.4 0.0046 265 2.2 0.0014 255 2.1 0.1542
Total sugars (g) 134 6.7 149 3.6 0.0594 130 1.4 0.6016 139 4.9 0.5190 130 4.4 0.6484 128 1.7 0.3738 130 2.3 0.6479 124 1.9 0.1674
Added sugars (tsp eq) 22 2.0 25 0.5 0.1791 20 0.3 0.2535 21 1.0 0.7195 19 1.1 0.1331 20 0.4 0.2152 20 0.6 0.3609 18 0.4 0.0874
Protein (g) 72 2.2 59 1.1 <0.0001 72 0.5 0.7474 70 1.5 0.2823 72 1.7 0.9931 65 0.6 0.0004 67 1.3 0.0301 68 0.9 0.0685
Total fat (g) 76 1.9 72 1.2 0.0958 71 0.4 0.0296 67 1.5 0.0004 64 1.3 <0.0001 72 0.5 0.0727 70 0.8 0.0022 74 0.8 0.4128
Total monounsaturated fatty acids (g) 27 0.8 28 0.6 0.7623 26 0.2 0.0648 24 0.7 0.0003 23 0.5 <0.0001 26 0.3 0.1789 26 0.4 0.0958 27 0.4 0.7836
Total saturated fatty acids (g) 27 0.7 25 0.5 0.0080 26 0.2 0.0313 25 0.6 0.0049 22 0.7 <0.0001 25 0.2 0.0001 24 0.5 0.0001 26 0.4 0.0311
Cholesterol (mg) 261 23.5 184 8.0 0.0018 229 4.5 0.1745 198 9.4 0.0163 211 8.1 0.0771 189 4.2 0.0074 240 9.7 0.4133 233 9.9 0.2342
Dietary fiber (g) 11 0.5 12 0.4 0.4815 13 0.2 0.0007 13 0.6 0.0052 13 0.5 <0.0001 13 0.2 0.0006 12 0.3 0.1014 14 0.3 <0.0001
Calcium (mg) 962 53.5 863 28.2 0.1005 1054 12.6 0.0898 1092 31.5 0.0388 964 31.0 0.9737 968 13.6 0.8987 1056 32.4 0.1635 1043 19.1 0.1526
Magnesium (mg) 208 8.7 204 5.0 0.6863 232 2.1 0.0089 231 4.9 0.0158 257 6.7 <0.0001 230 2.3 0.0141 209 2.9 0.8743 237 4.5 0.0009
Iron (mg) 10.6 0.3 11.8 0.3 0.0097 14.17 0.15 <0.0001 19.03 0.67 <0.0001 15.45 0.39 <0.0001 14.16 0.21 <0.0001 13.34 0.23 <0.0001 13.44 0.25 <0.0001
Zinc (mg) 9.4 0.3 8.2 0.2 0.0016 10.97 0.16 0.0001 12.74 0.41 <0.0001 11.00 0.37 0.0050 10.12 0.12 0.0322 9.23 0.22 0.7165 9.93 0.19 0.2085
Sodium (mg) 2996 87.24 2645 44.20 0.0018 3137 23.94 0.1432 3004 71.10 0.9403 3429 150.37 0.0107 3066 38.87 0.4346 3129 45.06 0.2079 3118 55.97 0.2002
Potassium (mg) 2148 91.60 2021 69.94 0.2406 2243 21.46 0.3103 2333 46.88 0.0663 2365 51.12 0.0385 2070 23.24 0.3637 2044 33.81 0.3037 2209 39.34 0.5443
Folate, DFE (μg) 361 12.60 393 13.48 0.0694 526 10.60 <0.0001 772 36.39 <0.0001 636 29.86 <0.0001 523 11.21 <0.0001 438 9.85 <0.0001 498 12.04 <0.0001
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) (mg) 1.8 0.1 1.8 0.0 0.9836 2.1 0.03 0.0001 2.6 0.04 <0.0001 2.0 0.05 0.0171 2.0 0.03 0.0154 2.1 0.04 0.0014 2.1 0.05 0.0031
Thiamin (Vitamin B1) (mg) 1.3 0.0 1.3 0.1 0.7019 1.6 0.02 <0.0001 1.9 0.04 <0.0001 1.7 0.04 <0.0001 1.5 0.03 0.0003 1.5 0.03 0.0024 1.5 0.03 <0.0001
Total choline (mg) 266 14.4 215 5.5 0.0007 260 3.4 0.6977 245 7.7 0.2363 264 6.9 0.9240 225 2.7 0.0053 260 7.4 0.6825 256 5.8 0.5145
Vitamin A, RAE (μg) 481 34.5 536 29.2 0.1948 599 9.8 0.0016 736 21.5 <0.0001 666 39.2 0.0008 551 12.2 0.0592 650 21.7 0.0001 578 18.6 0.0192
Vitamin B12 (μg) 4.2 0.2 3.8 0.1 0.1470 5.3 0.1 0.0001 6.8 0.3 <0.0001 4.7 0.2 0.1237 4.7 0.1 0.0246 4.9 0.1 0.0255 4.8 0.2 0.0529
Vitamin B6 (mg) 1.4 0.1 1.4 0.0 0.7590 1.7 0.03 0.0004 2.2 0.1 <0.0001 1.9 0.1 <0.0001 1.6 0.03 0.0059 1.7 0.04 0.0031 1.7 0.1 0.0045
Vitamin C (mg) 70.0 5.0 78.0 6.0 0.2829 80.0 2.0 0.0690 83.9 6.1 0.0575 103.6 9.0 0.0025 80.0 2.6 0.0846 72.3 3.1 0.7126 78.7 3.0 0.1833
Vitamin D (D2 + D3) (μg) 5.0 0.5 4.7 0.3 0.5028 6.0 0.2 0.0753 7.6 0.4 <0.0001 6.0 0.2 0.1363 5.3 0.1 0.5640 5.3 0.3 0.6946 5.8 0.2 0.1939
Vitamin E as alpha-tocopherol (mg) 5.8 0.3 5.6 0.2 0.6583 5.9 0.2 0.6465 5.1 0.1 0.0198 5.9 0.4 0.7239 6.2 0.1 0.1437 5.4 0.1 0.1511 6.1 0.2 0.3859
Vitamin K (μg) 52.7 4.0 57.4 5.4 0.4934 58.2 2.6 0.3003 52.2 5.5 0.9396 76.7 9.8 0.0277 52.4 1.9 0.9567 55.9 3.3 0.5779 55.4 1.7 0.5403
  1. NHANES 2005–2010, N = 8,367
  2. LSM: least square mean; SE: standard error; P = p value of difference as compared to cluster 0 (No grains)
  3. Covariates include age, gender, ethnicity, poverty income ratio, physical activity, current smoking status, alcohol and for all variables except Energy, the covariate of energy (kcal)