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Table 2 Dietary intake in the study groups at baseline and during interventiona

From: Effect of a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise on the preservation of fat free mass during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults: a randomized controlled trial

  Control Protein Exercise Protein + Exercise P valueb Protein groups Control groups P valuec
(n = 20) (n = 21) (n = 25) (n = 31) (n = 52) (n = 45)
Energy, kcal/d Baseline 1928 ± 849 1932 ± 539 1877 ± 522 2061 ± 621 0.730 2009 ± 587 1900 ± 678 0.397
During intervention 1650 ± 531 1726 ± 449 1569 ± 463 1784 ± 579 0.452 1761 ± 526 1605 ± 490 0.137
Protein, g/day Baseline 85.7 ± 31.0 82.6 ± 21.4 82.6 ± 23.4 93.2 ± 31.2 0.425 88.9 ± 27.9 83.9 ± 26.7 0.372
During intervention 76.6 ± 21.1 89.3 ± 22.6 73.9 ± 22.4 92.8 ± 32.9 0.025 91.4 ± 29.0 75.1 ± 21.6 0.002
Protein, g/kg/day Baseline 0.95 ± 0.36 0.92 ± 0.34 0.93 ± 0.30 1.00 ± 0.31 0.825 0.97 ± 0.32 0.94 ± 0.33 0.662
During intervention 0.87 ± 0.29 1.02 ± 0.36 0.84 ± 0.23 1.02 ± 0.35 0.081 1.02 ± 0.35 0.86 ± 0.26 0.008
Protein, g/adj_kg/dayd Baseline 1.12 ± 0.45 1.04 ± 0.30 1.08 ± 0.36 1.14 ± 0.39 0.820 1.10 ± 0.35 1.10 ± 0.39 0.972
During intervention 1.00 ± 0.27 1.13 ± 0.33 0.97 ± 0.32 1.13 ± 0.37 0.177 1.13 ± 0.35 0.98 ± 0.29 0.027
Protein, en%e Baseline 18.5 ± 3.3 17.6 ± 3.4 17.9 ± 3.7 18.3 ± 3.6 0.838 18.0 ± 3.5 18.2 ± 3.5 0.814
During intervention 18.9 ± 2.2 21.1 ± 3.5 18.9 ± 3.0 21.2 ± 4.6 0.033 21.1 ± 4.1 19.0 ± 2.6 0.002
Carbohydrate, en% Baseline 44.2 ± 5.2 43.3 ± 6.5 45.3 ± 6.0 43.7 ± 8.6 0.760 43.5 ± 7.7 44.8 ± 5.7 0.343
During intervention 46.2 ± 5.8 40.4 ± 6.1 47.1 ± 6.4 43.3 ± 6.2 0.002 42.2 ± 6.3 46.7 ± 6.1 0.001
Fat, en% Baseline 33.1 ± 6.3 34.1 ± 5.6 32.3 ± 6.9 32.8 ± 7.7 0.832 33.3 ± 6.9 32.6 ± 6.6 0.625
During intervention 30.9 ± 5.7 33.3 ± 5.7 29.2 ± 6.9 30.6 ± 7.1 0.214 31.7 ± 6.7 30.0 ± 6.4 0.204
  1. aData represent means ± SD using last observations carried forward; Intake during intervention is mean intake data at week 5 and 10; bSignificance level of differences between four groups using One-Way ANOVA; cSignificance level of differences between protein and non-protein groups using the t-test; dProtein in g/kg/day with adjusted weight using current weight for BMI < 30 kg/m2 or using weight at BMI 27.5 kg/m2 for BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, to make it comparable to the protein target; een% stands for % of energy intake