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Table 1 Basic characteristics of study population by tertiles of total meat intake at age 10 years

From: Prospective associations of meat consumption during childhood with measures of body composition during adolescence: results from the GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts

  Females Males
Total meat (n = 797) Total meat tertiles Total meat (n = 813) Total meat tertiles
T1 (n = 266) T2 (n = 266) T3 (n = 265) p-vala T1 (n = 271) T2 (n = 271) T3 (n = 271) p-vala
10 years
 BMI (kg/m2) 16.7 (15.5; 18.3) 16.4 (15.5; 17.9) 16.9 (15.5; 18.3) 16.9 (15.5; 18.6) 0.037 16.7 (15.6; 18.4) 16.5 (15.4; 18.3) 16.7 (15.5; 18.1) 16.9 (15.9; 18.9) 0.030
 Overweight, n (%)b 133 (16.7) 32 (12) 44 (16.5) 57 (21.5) 0.014 183 (22.5) 54 (19.9) 54 (19.9) 75 (27.7) 0.045
 Age (years) 10.7 (10.5; 11.2) 10.7 (10.5; 11.2) 10.8 (10.5; 11.2) 10.7 (10.4; 11.1) 0.162 10.7 (10.4; 11.1) 10.7 (10.4; 11.1) 10.7 (10.4; 11) 10.7 (10.4; 11.1) 0.923
 Sedentary behaviour [high]c, n (%) 65 (8.2) 15 (5.7) 23 (8.7) 27 (10.3) 0.149 103 (12.8) 37 (13.7) 31 (11.6) 35 (13.1) 0.759
 Pubertal onset [Yes]d, n (%) 366 (45.9) 117 (44) 120 (45.1) 129 (48.7) 0.526 81 (10) 30 (11.1) 25 (9.2) 26 (9.6) 0.750
15 years
 BMI (kg/m2) 20.3 (18.8; 22.1) 20.1 (18.6; 21.6) 20.4 (19.1; 22.3) 20.4 (18.8; 22.5) 0.066 19.9 (18.5; 21.9) 19.6 (18.2; 21.5) 19.8 (18.3; 21.6) 20.4 (18.9; 22.6) 0.001
 Overweight, n (%)b 105 (13.2) 22 (8.3) 38 (14.3) 45 (17) 0.010 151 (18.6) 46 (17) 43 (15.9) 62 (22.9) 0.078
 Fat mass index (kg/m2) 5.5 (4.6; 6.6) 5.2 (4.5; 6.2) 5.6 (4.6; 6.7) 5.8 (4.7; 6.9) 0.008 3.6 (2.8; 4.7) 3.5 (2.8; 4.5) 3.5 (2.7; 4.5) 3.8 (2.8; 5.1) 0.028
 Fat free mass index (kg/m2) 14.9 (13.8; 15.8) 14.8 (13.8; 15.5) 14.9 (13.8; 16) 14.9 (13.8; 15.9) 0.411 16.3 (15.3; 17.6) 16 (15.2; 17.3) 16.3 (15.2; 17.4) 16.6 (15.6; 18) 0.002
 Age (years) 15.2 (15; 15.3) 15.2 (15; 15.3) 15.2 (15.1; 15.3) 15.1 (15; 15.3) 0.336 15.1 (15; 15.3) 15.2 (15; 15.3) 15.1 (15; 15.3) 15.1 (15; 15.3) 0.704
 Sedentary behaviour [high]c, n (%) 386 (48.4) 116 (43.6) 134 (50.4) 136 (51.3) 0.152 522 (64.2) 172 (63.5) 166 (61.3) 184 (67.9) 0.260
Basis characteristics
 Study
 GINI control, n (%) 282 (35.4) 92 (34.6) 103 (38.7) 87 (32.8) 0.226 258 (31.7) 82 (30.3) 91 (33.6) 85 (31.4) 0.862
 GINI intervention, n (%) 254 (31.9) 86 (32.3) 89 (33.5) 79 (29.8)   238 (29.3) 85 (31.4) 74 (27.3) 79 (29.2)  
 LISA, n (%) 261 (32.7) 88 (33.1) 74 (27.8) 99 (37.4)   317 (39) 104 (38.4) 106 (39.1) 107 (39.5)  
 Region
 Munich, n (%) 417 (52.3) 154 (57.9) 137 (51.5) 126 (47.5) 0.094 416 (51.2) 138 (50.9) 142 (52.4) 136 (50.2) 0.960
 Leipzig, n (%) 69 (8.7) 22 (8.3) 18 (6.8) 29 (10.9)   79 (9.7) 24 (8.9) 29 (10.7) 26 (9.6)  
 Bad Honef, n (%) 34 (4.3) 14 (5.3) 10 (3.8) 10 (3.8)   40 (4.9) 15 (5.5) 11 (4.1) 14 (5.2)  
 Wesel, n (%) 277 (34.8) 76 (28.6) 101 (38) 100 (37.7)   278 (34.2) 94 (34.7) 89 (32.8) 95 (35.1)  
 Parental educ. [High], n (%)e 578 (72.5) 205 (77.1) 193 (72.6) 180 (67.9) 0.062 552 (67.9) 192 (70.8) 182 (67.2) 178 (65.7) 0.415
  1. Values are medians for continuous variables (25th percentile; 75th percentile) and n (%) for categorical variables. aDifferences between tertiles were tested by Kruskal-Walis test for continuous variables and X2-test for categorical variables; bBMI z-score > 1; cHours spent on screen activities > 2; dPresence of any sign of pubertal onset; eHighest level achieved by mother or father > 10y. Significant p-values marked in bold