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Table 2 Regression analyses of associations of variables with leg strength, grip strength, fast-gait speed and timed up-and-go (TUG) times

From: Serum folate predicts muscle strength: a pilot cross-sectional study of the association between serum vitamin levels and muscle strength and gait measures in patients >65 years old with diabetes mellitus in a primary care setting

Determinants of strength measures (leg and grip) Regression of average leg strength/BMI Regression of average grip strength/BMI
  Model 1, F(6, 49) = 3.30, P < 0.01 Model 2, F(2, 53) = 9.79, P < 0.001 Model 1, F(6, 49) = 6.25, P < 0.001 Model 2, F(2, 53) = 17.74, P < 0.0001
R2 = 0.29, adjusted R2 = 0.20 R2 = 0.27, adjusted R2 = 0.24 R2 = 0.43, adjusted R2 = 0.36 R2 = 0.40, adjusted R2 = 0.38
β B (SE) P β B (SE) P β B (SE) P β B (SE) P
Gender (men = 1, women = 0) 0.4450 0.3600 (0.0982) 0.001 0.4537 0.3670 (0.0950) <0.001 0.5406 0.3451 (0.0691) <0.001 0.5573 0.3558 (0.0679) <0.001
Age −0.0727 −0.0065 (0.0117) ns - - - −0.1792 −0.0127 (0.0082) ns - - -
Folate 0.1926 0.0078 (0.0057) ns (0.173) 0.2681 0.0109 (0.0048) 0.026 0.3084 0.0099 (0.0040) 0.017 0.3194 0.0102 (0.0034) 0.004
Vitamin B12 −0.0868 −0.0003 (0.0005) ns - - - −0.0138 −0.00004(0.0003) ns - - -
Vitamin D 0.1036 0.0022 (0.0028) ns - - - −0.0076 −0.0001(0.0020) ns - - -
Homocysteine −0.0774 −0.0039 (0.0067) ns - - - 0.0515 0.0021(0.0047) ns - - -
Determinants of speed measures (gait speed) Regression of gait speed on average leg strength Regression of gait speed on average leg strength/BMI
  Model 1′, F(5, 50) = 4.67, P <0.05 Model 2′, F(2, 53) = 11.89, P < 0.001 Model 1’, F(5, 50) = 6.09, P < 0.001 Model 2’, F(2, 53) = 16.00, P < 0.0001
R2 = 0.32, adjusted R2 = 0.25 R2 0.31, adjusted R2 = 0.28 R2 = 0.38, adjusted R2 = 0.32 R2 = 0.38, adjusted R2 = 0.35
β B (SE) P β B (SE) P β B (SE) P β B (SE) P
Average leg strength 0.4546 0.0126 (0.0330) <0.001 0.4655 0.0129 (0.032) <0.001 - - - - - -
Average leg strength/BMI - - - - - - 0.5291 0.3661 (0.0801) <0.001 0.5347 0.3699 (0.0755) <0.001
Age −0.2979 −0.0185 (0.0760) 0.018 −0.2788 −0.0174 (0.0071) 0.018 −0.2541 −0.0158 (0.0073) 0.035 −0.2491 −0.0155 (0.0068) 0.026
Vitamin B12 −0.0269 −0.0006 (0.0003) ns - - - 0.0097 0.00002 (0.0003) ns - - -
Vitamin D 0.0848 0.0013 (0.0018) ns - - - 0.0448 0.0007 (0.0017) ns - - -
Homocysteine 0.0044 0.0002 (0.0043) ns - - - 0.0149 0.0005 (0.0041) ns - - -
Determinants of speed and balance measures (TUG) Regression of TUG on average leg strength Regression of TUG on average leg strength/BMI
  Model 1', F(5, 50) = 3.20, P < 0.05 Model 2', F(2, 53) = 7.57, P < 0.01 Model 1', F(5, 50) = 4.24, P < 0.01 Model 2', F(2, 53) = 10.38, P < 0.001
R2 = 0.24, adjusted R2 = 0.17 R2 0.22, adjusted R2 = 0.19 R2 = 0.30, adjusted R2 = 0.23 R2 = 0.28, adjusted R2 = 0.25
β B (SE) P β B (SE) P β B (SE) P β B (SE) P
Average leg strength −0.3487 −0.1555 (0.0559) 0.008 −0.3519 −0.1569 (0.0541) 0.005 - - - - - -
Average leg strength/BMI - - - - - - −0.4315 −4.7901 (1.3656) 0.001 −0.4230 −4.7737 (1.3000) 0.001
Age 0.3026 0.3022 (0.1285) 0.023 0.2934 0.2932 (0.1212) 0.019 0.2649 0.2647 (0.1247) 0.039 0.2683 0.2681 (0.1170) 0.026
Vitamin B12 −0.0492 −0.0019 (0.0051) ns - - - −0.0810 −0.0030 (0.0049) ns - - -
Vitamin D −0.1251 −0.0298 (0.0301) ns - - - −0.0901 −0.0214 (0.0292) ns - - -
Homocysteine −0.0736 −0.0416 (0.0730) ns - - - −0.0850 −0.0481(0.0701) ns - - -