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Table 2 Biochemical indices, self-reported anxiety levels1 at baseline and after coffee consumption in healthy volunteers in non-stressful conditions (n = 40)

From: Acute effects of coffee consumption on self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms, blood pressure and stress indices in healthy individuals

  Cold espresso Filter coffee Cold instant coffee Hot instant coffee PA 2
Biochemical indices
Salivary cortisol (mcg/dL)
 Baseline 0.31a ± 0.03 0.32a ± 0.02 0.32a ± 0.03 0.30a ± 0.02 NS
 60 min 0.24b ± 0.02 0.22b ± 0.01 0.25b ± 0.02 0.23b ± 0.02 NS
 120 min 0.23bc ± 0.02 0.20bc ± 0.01 0.20bc ± 0.02 0.21b ± 0.02 NS
 180 min 0.19c ± 0.01 0.17c ± 0.01 0.17c ± 0.01 0.18b ± 0.01 NS
 PB 3 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001  
 iAUC 11.25 ± 1.35 11.10 ± 1.10 13.41 ± 1.46 11.25 ± 0.98 NS
Salivary alpha-amylase (U/ml)
 Baseline 46.53a ± 4.76 49.07a ± 5.44 49.07a ± 5.04 52.69a ± 6.17 NS
 15 min 58.93aΑΒ ± 7.05 49.50 ± 5.23 70.27 ± 8.97 53.63aΑΒ ± 5.94 0.030
 30 min 94.50bAB ± 10.94 74.81bA ± 7.76 100.44cB ± 11.19 83.41bAB ± 8.67 0.024
 60 min 103.54bB ± 10.49 80.45bA ± 8.77 97.35cAB ± 10.44 86.61bAB ± 8.91 0.034
 PB <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001  
 iAUC 1019.29ab ± 139.47 675.75a ± 83.89 1214.79b ± 167.35 772.67a ± 89.74 <0.001
Salivary gastrin (pg/ml)
 Baseline 6.93a ± 1.72 10.54a ± 1.82 9.12a ± 2.18 5.17a ± 1.03 NS
 15 min 51.18c ± 5.36 47.53b ± 5.93 60.33b ± 10.40 62.95c ± 8.98 NS
 30 min 27.34b ± 4.30 16.06a ± 2.75 21.67a ± 5.61 21.10b ± 3.44 NS
 60 min 10.46a ± 3.19 7.74a ± 1.88 12.64a ± 3.43 6.45ab ± 1.35 NS
 PB <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001  
 iAUC 994.66 ± 74.03 730.16 ± 75.34 1377.81 ± 190.70 1251.22 ± 148.86 NS
Score of the Zung self-reported anxiety scale questionnaire (20–80)
 Baseline 28.6 ± 0.7 28.9 ± 0.7 28.3 ± 0.6 27.8 ± 0.7 NS
 15 min 28.8 ± 0.6 28.8 ± 0.7 28.8 ± 0.7 27.6 ± 0.6 NS
 30 min 29.5 ± 0.7 28.5 ± 0.6 29.2 ± 0.7 27.9 ± 0.6 NS
 60 min 29.0 ± 0.6 28.8 ± 0.6 28.9 ± 0.6 28.1 ± 0.6 NS
 PB NS NS NS NS  
  1. Data are Mean ± SEM
  2. Abbreviations: NS not statistically significant, iAUC incremental area under the curve calculated with the trapezoid rule. Means that have no superscript in common are significantly different from each other
  3. P-values <0.05 were considered as significant
  4. 1Score of the Zung self-reported anxiety scale questionnaire (20–80) (Reference [45])
  5. 2PA describes differences between coffee types at a specific time point
  6. 3PB describes differences between time points for every coffee type