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Table 1 Characteristics of 1276 GEA study participants according to serum magnesium quartiles

From: Serum magnesium is inversely associated with coronary artery calcification in the Genetics of Atherosclerotic Disease (GEA) study

  Q1
<1.97 mg/dl
Q2
≥1.97 to <2.07 mg/dl
Q3
≥2.07 to <2.18 mg/dl
Q4
≥2.18 mg/dl
P*
N 326 304 338 308  
Serum magnesium (mg/dl) 1.90 [1.83–1.94] 2.03 [2.00–2.05] 2.11 [2.09–2.14] 2.24 [2.20–2.29] <0.001
Dietary magnesium (mg) 351 [290–410] 344 [292–421] 356 [289–424] 358 [293–422] 0.692
Male (%) 50 49.3 51.2 49 0.949
Age (years) 54 ± 10 53 ± 10 54 ± 9 55 ± 9 0.079
Body mass index (kg/cm2) 28.8 ± 4.2 28.4 ± 4.2 28.0 ± 4.0 28.1 ± 3.8 0.056
Visceral adipose tissue (cm2) 157 [112–211] 148 [112–190] 150 [109–194] 148 [115–193] 0.196
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 118 [108–130] 113 [103–125] 114 [106–123] 113 [103–123] <0.001
Glucose (mg/dl) 95 [87–125] 91 [85–99] 89 [83–96] 89 [84–96] <0.001
Insulin (μU/ml) 18.1 [13.2–24.9] 18.2 [12.6–24.7] 16.7 [12.4–22.8] 16.4 [12.3–22.4] 0.067
HOMA-IR 4.9 [3.0–7.5] 4.2 [2.8–5.7] 3.7 [2.6–5.4] 3.6 [2.6–5.1] <0.001
Cholesterol      
 Total (mg/dl) 190 ± 36 190 ± 37 193 ± 37 198 ± 37a,b 0.015
 LDL (mg/dl) 116 ± 32 117 ± 33 117 ± 32 123 ± 33a,b,c 0.009
 HDL (mg/dl) 45.7 ± 13.2 45.1 ± 13.3 47.8 ± 14.1 45.6 ± 13.0 0.065
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 148 [114–200] 152 [113–202] 145 [106–209] 153 [116–204] 0.844
Apolipoprotein B (mg/dl) 92 [74–112] 93 [75–111] 95 [79–115] 103 [85–122] <0.001
Apolipoprotein A (mg/dl) 133 [114–154] 131 [111–152] 134 [117–158] 135 [117–155] 0.095
Adiponectin (μg/ml) 8.0 [4.8–11.8] 7.6 [5.0–12.1] 8.1 [5.2–13.1] 7.8 [5.0–12.2] 0.915
hsCRP (mg/l) 1.8 [0.9–3.6] 1.5 [0.8–3.3] 1.4 [0.7–2.9] 1.4 [0.8–3.0] 0.018
Current smoking (%) 21 23 23 21 0.765
Physical activity 7.75 [6.88–8.88] 7.88 [6.75–8.75] 7.88 [7.13–8.75] 7.75 [7.00–8.63] 0.256
Menopausal women (%) 62 62.3 64.8 76.6 0.018
Hypertension (%) 14 8 8 8 0.009
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (%) 34 10 8 5 <0.001
Insulin resistance (%) 66 63 53 51 <0.001
Metabolic syndrome (%) 54 44 41 41 0.003
CAC score >0 (%) 35 24 26 24 0.002
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± SD, median [IR, interquartile range] or percentages. HOMA-IR Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance, LDL Low density lipoprotein, HDL High density lipoprotein, hsCRP High sensitive C reactive protein
  2. *for ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis or Chi square test. P <0.05 aversus Q1, bversus Q2, cversus Q3