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Table 8 Adiposity measures across WG consumption groups based on NHANES (2001–2012)1-6

From: Whole grain consumption trends and associations with body weight measures in the United States: results from the cross sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2012

Age group and measure WG consumption groups P value
  WG = 0 (n = 7768) 0 < WG <1 (n = 4675) WG > =1 (n = 2837)  
6–18 years     
 Weighted % 47 32 21  
 BMI (kg/m2)2 21.5 ± 0.2a 21.2 ± 0.2b 20.9 ± 0.2c 0.0004
 Waist circumference (cm)2 74.0 ± 0.3a 73.1 ± 0.3b 72.6 ± 0.4b 0.0057
 Overweight/obese (%)3 35.4a 32.9ab 30.3b 0.0210
 Obese (%)4 19.4a 17.6ab 15.6b 0.0232
  WG = 0 (n = 14,742) 0 < WG <1 (n = 7479) WG > =1 (n = 7462)  
19+ years     
 Weighted percent (%) 47 26 27  
 BMI (kg/m2)2 28.3 ± 0.1a 28.1 ± 0.1a 27.6 ± 0.1b <0.0001
 Waist circumference (cm)2 96.6 ± 0.3a 95.7 ± 0.3b 94.7 ± 0.3c <0.0001
 Overweight/obese (%)3 66.2a 66.5a 62.3b <0.0001
 Obese (%)4 33.0a 31.0a 28.1b 0.0035
  1. 1Day 1 from foods only, excluding pregnant and breastfeeding women
  2. 2Multivariate linear regression was performed to determine the extent to which adiposity measures (BMI, and waist circumference) were explained by WG intake
  3. 3Multivariate logistic regression was performed to estimate how the likelihood of being overweight/obese differs across WG consumption groups
  4. 4Multivariate logistic regression was performed to estimate how the likelihood of being Obese differs across WG consumption groups
  5. 5Regression analysis was adjusted for age, age2, gender, race/ethnicity, total calorie intake, alcohol intake and physical activity6Means with different superscript letters across rows are significantly different.