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Table 4 Summary relative risk estimates (SRRE), 95 % CI, p-values for heterogeneity and I2 values for cooking methods and HCA and prostate cancer (high vs. low exposure)

From: A review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of red and processed meat, meat cooking methods, heme iron, heterocyclic amines and prostate cancer

Model (number of studies) SRRE 95 % CI P-value for Heterogeneity; I2
Cooking methods
 Total Prostate Cancer:
  Grilled/Barbequed meats (n = 3) 1.06 0.94–1.20 0.171; 45.5 %
  Pan-fried meats (n = 3) 1.00 0.96–1.05 0.763; 0.00 %
  Broiled meats (n = 2) 1.04 1.00–1.09 0.451; 0.00 %
  Well-done/Very well done meats (n = 5) 1.09 0.95–1.26 0.062; 55.4 %
  Rare/Medium meats (n = 4) 1.01 0.91–1.12 0.245; 27.9 %
 Advanced Prostate Cancer:
  Grilled/Barbequed meats (n = 3) 1.19 0.94–1.51 0.181; 41.5 %
  Pan-fried meats (n = 3) 0.97 0.77–1.22 0.140; 49.2 %
  Broiled meats (n = 2) 1.00 0.87–1.14 0.830; 0.00 %
  Well-done/Very well done meats (n = 4) 1.24 0.90–1.71 0.075; 56.5 %
  Rare/Medium meats (n = 3) 1.09 0.88–1.34 0.331; 9.57 %
Heterocyclic amines
 Total Prostate Cancer:
  DiMeIQx (n = 5) 1.03 0.97–1.09 0.530; 0.00 %
  MeIQx (n = 5) 1.06 0.96–1.16 0.198; 33.5 %
  PhIP (n = 5) 1.05 0.96–1.14 0.211; 31.6 %
  Sensitivity analysis including “PhIP from red meat from Rohrmann 2015” 1.07 0.96–1.20 0.073; 53.4 %
  B(a)P (n = 3) 1.01 0.90–1.14 0.169; 43.8 %
  Mutagenic activity (n = 3) 1.09 1.00–1.20 0.725; 0.00 %
 Advanced Prostate Cancer:
  DiMeIQx (n = 5) 1.10 0.94–1.29 0.747; 0.00 %
  MeIQx (n = 5) 0.93 0.78–1.11 0.931; 0.00 %
  PhIP (n = 5) 0.97 0.83–1.14 0.668; 0.00 %
  Sensitivity analysis including “PhIP from red meat from Rohrmann 2015” 1.05 0.86–1.30 0.192; 34.3 %
  B(a)P (n = 3) 1.00 0.74–1.36 0.074; 61.9 %
  Mutagenic activity (n = 3) 1.04 0.84–1.28 0.412; 0.00 %