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Table 1 Characteristics of prospective cohort studies of red and processed meat and prostate cancer a

From: A review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of red and processed meat, meat cooking methods, heme iron, heterocyclic amines and prostate cancer

Author, year Study cohort (Country) No. of subjects (No. of cases) Age range (mean) Year baseline diet assessed Follow up, years Meat exposures analyzed Prostate cancer outcome Statistical adjustments
Agalliu et al, 2011 [13] Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle and Health (Canada) 1864 (661) 69.3 (10.5) [mean (SD) controls]; 66.2 (8.4) [mean (SD) cases] 1995–1998 8 Red meat All PCa; nonadvanced PCa; advanced PCa Age at baseline, race, BMI, exercise activity, and education
Allen et al, 2004 [29] Life Span Study Cohort (Japan) 18,119 (196) 51–89 1979–1980 16.9 [mean] Pork All PCa Age, calendar period, city of residence, radiation dose and education level
Allen et al, 2008 [30] EPIC (Europe) 142,241 (2727) 52 [median] 1989–2004 18 Red meat; processed meat All PCa Study center, education, marital status, height, weight, and energy intake
Cross et al, 2005 [47] PLCO (US) 29,361 (1338) 55–74 1993–2001 11 Red meat; processed meat Total PCa; incident PCa; advanced PCa Age, race, study center, fam hx, history of diabetes, number of screening exams during follow-up, smoking status, physical activity, aspirin use, BMI, and intake of total energy, supplemental vitamin E, and lycopene
Gann et al, 1994 [32] PHS (US) 240 (120) 40–84 1982 6 Beef, pork, or lamb as a main dish All PCa None reported
Hsing et al, 1990 [33] LBC (US) 17,633 (149) ≥35 1966 20 Red meat (processed and unprocessed) Fatal PCa Age, tobacco use
Koutros et al, 2008 [34] AHS (US) 23,080 (668) 48.3 [mean] 1993–1997 10 Red meat; pork chops/ham steaks; beef steaks; hamburgers; bacon/sausage Total PCa; incident PCa; advanced PCa Age, state of residence, race, fam hx, and smoking status
Le Marchand et al, 1994 [35] Hawaiian State Department of Health (US) 8881 (198) ≥18 1975–1980 14 Pork; beef Total PCa; localized stage PCa; regional and distant stage PCa Age, ethnicity, and income
Major et al, 2011 [19] NIH-AARP (US) 7949 (1089) (Blacks only) 50–71 1995–1996 11 Red meat; processed meat Total PCa; Advanced PCa Age, education, marital status, fam hx, hx of diabetes, smoking, health status, BMI, alcohol, fruit intakes
Michaud et al, 2001 [36] HPFS (US) 47,780 (1987) 40–75 1986 10 Red meat; beef, pork, lamb (main dish); beef, pork, lamb (sandwich or mixed dish); hamburger, processed meat (sausage, salami, bologna); bacon; hot dogs Total PCa, Advanced PCa Age, calories, calcium, smoking, tomato use, vigorous exercise, saturated and alpha linolenic fat
Mills et al, 1989 [37] Seventh Day Adventists (US) 14,000 (180) ≥25 1976 6 Beef hamburger; beef steak; other beef and veal; beef index All PCa Age
Neuhouser et al, 2007 [38] CAROT (US) 12,000 (890) 50–69 1989 11 [mean] Red meat Total PCa; aggressive PCa; nonaggressive PCa Age, energy intake, BMI, smoking, fam hx, and race/ethnicity
Park et al, 2007 [39] Multiethnic Cohort (US) 82,483 (4404) ≥45 1993–1996 8 Red meat; beef; pork; processed meat Total PCa; non-localized or high grade PCa; Time on study, ethnicity, family history of prostate cancer, education, BMI, smoking status and energy intake
Richman et al, 2011 [15] HPFS (US) 27,607 (199) 40–75 1986 22 Total red meat (processed and unprocessed); unprocessed red meat; processed red meat Lethal PCa Age, energy, BMI, smoking, vigorous activity, and lycopene intake
Rodriguez et al, 2006 [40] Cancer Prevention Study II (US) 65,590 (5113) 50–74 1992 9 Total red meat (processed and unprocessed); unprocessed red meat; All PCa; metastatic PCa Age at entry, total calorie intake, BMI, level of education, fam hx, history of PSA testing, and hx of diabetes
Rohrmann et al, 2007 [41] CLUE II (US) 3892 (199) ≥35 1989 15 Red meat (processed and unprocessed); beef; pork; processed meats; sausages; bacon; ham/lunchmeat; hot dogs Total PCa; low-stage PCa; high-stage PCa Age, energy intake, consumption of tomato products, BMI at age 21, and intake of saturated fat
Schuurman et al, 1999 [42] NLCS (Netherlands) 2167 (642) 55–69 1986 6.3 Beef; pork; minced meat (beef and pork); boiled ham; bacon Total PCa; localized tumors; advanced tumors Age, fam hx, and socioeconomic status
Severson et al, 1989 [43] Hawaiian Men of Japanese Ancestry (US) 7998 (174) 46–65 1965–1968 21 Ham, bacon, sausage Total PCa Age
Sinha et al, 2009 [44] NIH-AARP (US) 175,343 (10,313) 50–71 1995–1996 8 Red meat (processed and unprocessed); processed meat Total PCa; advanced PCa; fatal PCa Age, total energy intake, race/ethnicity, education, marital status, undergoing prostate-specific antigen testing in the past 3 years, hx of diabetes, BMI, smoking history, frequency of vigorous physical activity, and intakes of alcohol, calcium, tomatoes, alpha-linolenic acid, vitamin E, zinc, and selenium
Veierod et al, 1997 [45] Norwegian men 1977–1983 (Norway) 25,708 (72) 16–56 1977–1983 15 Main meals with hamburgers, meatballs, etc. Total PCa Age at inclusion and attained age
Wright et al, 2012 [14] ATBC (Finland) 27,111 (1929) 50–69 1985–1988 21 Red meat; beef; sausages All PCa; advanced PCa Age, energy intake, smoking dose and duration, trial intervention assignment, education level, and dietary fat intake
Wu et al, 2006 [28] HPFS 47,725 (3002) 40–75 1986 14 Total red meat, processed meat Advanced PCa Age, height, smoking, family history of prostate cancer, race, history of vasectomy, vigorous exercise, body mass index, alcohol intake, and total energy intake
  1. a PCa, prostate cancer; BMI, body mass index; fam hx, family history; ATBC, Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study; EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; PLCO, Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, Ovarian Screening Trial; PHS, Physicians’ Health Study; LBC, Lutheran Brotherhood Cohort; AHS, Agricultural Health Study; NIH-AARP, National Institutes of Health-American Association for Retired Persons Diet and Health Study; HPFS, Health Professionals Follow-up Study; CAROT, Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial; NLCS, Netherlands Cohort Study