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Table 3 Maximum voluntary muscle strength (Newton [N]). Baseline data and percentage change after 12 months of treatment according to group allocation. Median with interquartile range (25–75 % percentiles)

From: The effect of melatonin treatment on postural stability, muscle strength, and quality of life and sleep in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

Muscle group   P-value   P-value*
Baseline (Newton) Change after 12 months (%)
Hand grip   0.79   0.58
 Placebo 287 (257;311)   −0.18 (−7.02;6.78)  
 Melatonin 281 (244;333)   −0.75 (−10.40;7.59)
Elbow extension   0.23   0.74
 Placebo 116 (98;138)   6.21 (1.23;12.85)
 Melatonin 111 (92;121)   5.20 (−3.51;15.28)
Elbow flexion   0.18   0.37
 Placebo 178 (156;192)   1.95 (−6.77;10.75)
 Melatonin 165 (152;185)   −1.45 (−9.12;6.91)
Knee extension 90° 0.67   0.99
 Placebo 309 (278;377)   0.33 (−2.68;5.44)
 Melatonin 312 (275;357)   0.55 (−6.66;11.26)
Knee flexion 90°   0.40   0.93
 Placebo 160 (137;177)   0.26 (−7.13;16.89)
 Melatonin 153 (121;177)   0.00 (−6.09;13.79)
Knee extension 60° 0.26   0.33
 Placebo 384 (326;433)   0.76 (−4.08;4.16)
 Melatonin 370 (313;410)   1.73 (−5.94;10.49)
Knee flexion 60°   0.44   0.54
 Placebo 169 (139;203)   4.31 (−9.61;22.58)
 Melatonin 163 (138;182)   0.99 (−2.53;9.66)
  1. *Significant changes between groups