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Table 4 Plasma lipids, fibrinogen and HOMAir according to the regular consumption of kiwi in three groups. Results expressed as mean and 95 % confidence interval

From: Effects of kiwi consumption on plasma lipids, fibrinogen and insulin resistance in the context of a normal diet

  No adjustment Adjusted
  Non consumption Occasional consumption Frequent consumption   Non consumption Occasional consumption Frequent consumption  
N = 594 (40.4 %) N = 520 (35.4 %) N = 355 (24.2 %)   N = 594 (40.4 %) N = 520 (35.4 %) N = 355 (24.2 %)
  Mean 95 % CI Mean 95 % CI Mean 95 % CI p value Marginal Mean 95 % CI Marginal Mean 95 % CI Marginal Mean 95 % CI p value
HDL-Cholesterol (mg/dL) ac 57.1 55.8–58.5 58.5 57.2–59.9 62.3 60.8–63.8 <0.001 58.9 57.7–60.1 58.4 57.1–59.6 60.9 59.2–62.5 0.060
Triglycerides (mg/dL)a 129.2 119.5–139.0 121.7 111.3–132.1 105.7 97.8–113.6 0.007 125.2 115.5–134.8 125.0 115.2–134.9 106.5 93.6–119.5 0.050
Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 375.7 367.8–383.6 376.8 369.2–384.5 363.0 354.0–372.0 0.063 377.8 369.9–385.7 378.5 370.5–386.4 363.2 352.5–373.9 0.050
HOMAirab 2.09 1.93–2.25 1.84 1.70–1.98 1.67 1.54–1.81 0.001 1.94 1.81–2.09 1.91 1.77–2.05 1.82 1.63–2.01 0.630
  1. p values are for comparison of sub-groups by ANOVA test with Bonferroni’s post hoc comparisons. aDifference between non consumers and frequent consumers; bDifference between non consumers and occasional consumers; cDifference between occasional consumers and frequent consumers
  2. p values are for comparison of sub-groups by ANCOVA test adjusted by: age, gender, total energy intake-Kcal, total fruit consumption, BMI, alcohol consumption and physical activity