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Table 2 Pooled estimates of effect size for the results of low glycaemic index/low glycaemic load compared to high glycaemic index/high glycaemic load

From: Effects of low glycaemic index/low glycaemic load vs. high glycaemic index/ high glycaemic load diets on overweight/obesity and associated risk factors in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Outcome parameter (I2) Mean difference 95 % confidence interval p-Value No. of studies Sample size I2 (%)
Body mass index, kg/m2 −0.54 (−1.19, 0.12) 0.11 7 836 13
Body mass index, kg/m21 −1.00 (−2.31, .0.31) 0.13 5 119 24
Body mass index z-score −0.09 (−0.19, 0.01) 0.08 4 777 0
Body mass index z-score 1 −0.11 (−0.23, 0.02) 0.10 2 40 0
Weight, kg −0.10 (−1.86, 1.67) 0.92 5 794 9
Weight, kg 1 −0.37 (−2.82, 2.08) 0.77 3 103 0
Waist circumference, cm −1.23 (−3.23, 0.77) 0.23 5 794 0
Waist circumference, cm 1 −1.40 (−5.46, 2.66) 0.50 3 103 0
Hip circumference, cm −1.07 (−3.25, 1.12) 0.34 3 664 0
Hip circumference, cm 1 −8.00 (−23.5, 7.50) 0.31 1 16 NA
Wast-to-hip ratio 0.00 (−0.02, 0.01) 0.53 3 664 13
Wast-to-hip ratio 1 0.00 (−0.05, 0.05) 1.00 1 16 NA
Body fat, kg −0.43 (−2.01, 1.14) 0.59 4 777 40
Body fat, kg 1 0.44 (−1.52, 2.40) 0.66 2 87 28
Fat mass, kg −1.04 (−2.50, 0.43) 0.17 4 689 26
Fat mass, kg 1 −1.87 (−3.96, 0.22) 0.08 2 42 64
Fat-free mass, kg 0.81 (−1.10, 2.72) 0.40 2 647 71
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg 0.65 (−2.11, 3.41) 0.64 4 213 39
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg 1.63 (−1.52, 4.78) 0.31 4 213 0
LDL-cholesterol, mg/dl −1.61 (−8.09, 4.87) 0.63 4 237 0
HDL-cholesterol, mg/dl 0.27 (−2.13, 2.66) 0.83 5 263 0
Triglycerides, mg/dl −15.14 (−26.26, −4.00) 0.008 5 263 0
Total cholesterol, mg/dl −3.72 (−11.71, 4.27) 0.36 4 246 0
C-reactive protein, mg/l 0.58 (−0.25, 1.41) 0.17 1 26 NA
HOMA index −0.70 (−1.37, −0.04) 0.04 4 172 30
Fasting serum insulin, μU/ml 2.67 (−6.32, 0.9) 0.15 3 109 0
Fasting serum glucose, mg/dl −0.13 (−2.25, 1.98) 0.90 4 213 0
  1. I2 = inconsistency (heterogeneity); NA = not applicable
  2. 1 For anthropometrical parameters, sensitivity analyses were performed including only trials investigating the effects of glycaemic index/load on children and adolescents being either overweight and/or obese (no such data were available for fat-free mass)