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Table 3 Risk of overweight and obesity and cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome risk factors in adult consumers and Non-consumers of tree nuts participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

From: Tree Nut consumption is associated with better adiposity measures and cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome health risk factors in U.S. Adults: NHANES 2005–2010

Variable OR LCL UCL
Overweighta,b 1.02 0.67 1.24
Obesea,b 0.75* 0.60 0.95
Overweight or obesea,b 0.77* 0.62 0.95
WC elevateda,c 0.79* 0.64 0.99
Elevated systolic BPd 0.91 0.71 1.17
Elevated diastolic BPd 1.03 0.80 1.33
LDL-C elevatedd,e 0.80 0.57 1.14
HDL-C reducedd,e 0.85* 0.67 1.07
Triglycerides elevatedd,e 0.81 0.58 1.13
Glucose elevatedd,e 0.81 0.59 1.11
Insulin elevated (>85th Pctl)d 0.82 0.54 1.26
Metabolic syndromea,f 0.74 0.52 1.05
  1. Abbreviations: WC = Waist circumference, BP = Blood pressure, LDL-C = Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C = High-density lipoprotein cholesterol
  2. For Tree Nut Consumers, the reference group was no tree nut consumption
  3. aCovariates: Gender, Ethnicity, Age, Socioeconomic Status (PIR 0–1.25, 1.25-3.4,  ≥ 3.25), Physical Activity Level (sedentary, moderate, active), Current Smoker Status, and Alcohol
  4. bOveweight was defined as a BMI 25–29.9; obese was defined as a BMI ≥ 30; overweight or obese was defined as a BMI ≥25
  5. cElevated WC was defined as >102 cm (males), >88 cm (females)
  6. dCovariates: Gender, Ethnicity, Age, Socioeconomic Status (PIR 0–1.25, 1.25-3., ≥ 3.25), Physical Activity Level (sedentary, moderate, active), Current Smoker Status, Alcohol, and BMI
  7. eReduced HDL-cholesterol was defined as <40 mg/dL (males), <50 mg/dL (females); high triglycerides, ≥150 mg/dL or taking anti-hyperlipidemic medications; high fasting glucose, ≥110 mg/dL or taking insulin or other hypoglycemic agents. Elevated LDL-C ≥100 mg/dL
  8. fMetabolic syndrome was defined using the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Adult Treatment Panel III criteria; that is having 3 or more of the following risk factors: abdominal obesity, WC > 102 cm (males), >88 cm (females); hypertension, SBP ≥130 mmHg or DBP ≥85 mmHg or taking anti-hypertensive medications; HDL-cholesterol, <40 mg/dL (males), <50 mg/dL (females); high triglycerides, ≥150 mg/dL or taking anti-hyperlipidemic medications; high fasting glucose, ≥110 mg/dL or taking insulin or other hypoglycemic agents
  9. *p < 0.05
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