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Table 3 Weight statusa apple products, apples, apple sauce, and apple juice of children participating in NHANES 2003–2010 (N = 13,339)

From: Consumption of apples is associated with a better diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2010

  Consumers Non-Consumers P-value
LSM ± SEb LSM ± SE
Total Apple Products
 BMI z-score 0.4 ± 0.04 0.5 ± 0.03 0.009
 Waist Circumference (cm) 68.2 ± 0.3 68.9 ± 0.3 0.066
 % Overweight 14.1 ± 1.0 15.5 ± 0.6 0.233
 % Obese 13.5 ± 0.9 16.9 ± 0.8 0.004
 % Overweight or Obese 27.6 ± 1.5 32.4 ± 1.0 0.007
Whole Apples
 BMI z-score 0.3 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.02 0.008
 Waist Circumference (cm) 68.1 ± 0.4 68.9 ± 0.3 0.105
 % Overweight 14.5 ± 1.6 15.2 ± 0.6 0.695
 % Obese 12.6 ± 1.1 16.6 ± 0.7 0.003
 % Overweight or Obese 27.1 ± 2.0 31.8 ± 1.0 0.040
Apple Sauce
 BMI z-score 0.4 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.02 0.301
 Waist Circumference (cm) 67.7 ± 0.6 68.8 ± 0.2 0.101
 % Overweight 14.2 ± 2.4 15.1 ± 0.6 0.688
 % Obese 11.2 ± 2.0 16.2 ± 0.7 0.018
 % Overweight or Obese 25.4 ± 3.2 31.3 ± 1.0 0.078
Apple Juice
 BMI z-score 0.4 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.02 0.502
 Waist Circumference (cm) 68.5 ± 0.4 68.8 ± 0.2 0.528
 % Overweight 15.6 ± 1.6 15.0 ± 0.6 0.722
 % Obese 13.8 ± 1.2 16.3 ± 0.7 0.074
 % Overweight or Obese 29.4 ± 2.2 31.4 ± 1.0 0.407
  1. aAdjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, poverty income ratio, physical activity level (sedentary, moderate, vigorous)
  2. Bolded values are significantly different p < 0.01; statistical differences were assessed linear regression
  3. bSE: Standard Error; LSM: Least Squares Mean