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Table 2 Effect sizes (SMDs) and confidence intervals for each study included in the meta-analysis. Negative SMDs show a reduction of pain in the treatment group for that study compared with the placebo control group

From: Zingiberaceae extracts for pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study N (treatment) N (control) SMD 95 % CI low 95 % CI high
Bliddal et al. 2000 [42] 56 56 −0.05 −0.42 −0.32
Altman et al. 2001 [43] 124 123 −0.16 −0.41 0.09
Wigler et al. 2003 [44] 29 29 −0.46 −0.98 0.07
Brinkhaus et al. 2005 [56] 24 58 0.23 −0.24 0.71
Black et al. 2010 [37] 20 20 −0.69 −1.33 −0.05
Agarwal et al. 2011 [54] 25 25 −1.73 −2.38 −1.08
Rahnama et al. 2012 [52] 59 46 −1.19 −1.61 −0.77
Panahi et al. 2014 [50] 19 21 −1.65 −2.37 −0.93