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Table 4 Comprehensive metabolic panel data of men (A) and women (B) before and following three weeks of supplementation with Ambrotose AO® at a dosage of 4 capsules per day and placebo (cross-over design with a three week washout between conditions).

From: Effect of Ambrotose AO® on resting and exercise-induced antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in healthy adults

A         
Variable Trained Men Ambrotose AO® Pre Trained Men Ambrotose AO® Post Trained Men Placebo Pre Trained Men Placebo Post Untrained Men Ambrotose AO® Pre Untrained Men Ambrotose AO® Post Untrained Men Placebo Pre Untrained Men Placebo Post
Glucose (mg·dL-1)** 84.3 ± 3.8 87.0 ± 4.6 87.4 ± 3.6 83.9 ± 2.3 90.4 ± 3.4 95.8 ± 5.4 99.6 ± 9.0 96.2 ± 9.1
BUN (mg·dL-1)†* 16.9 ± 1.9 16.7 ± 1.0 16.7 ± 1.6 17.9 ± 1.8 15.0 ± 2.3 15.8 ± 2.5 14.6 ± 1.0 13.4 ± 1.2
Creatinine (mg·dL-1)†* 1.1 ± 0.0 1.1 ± 0.0 1.2 ± 0.0 1.1 ± 0.0 1.0 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.1 1.1 ± 0.1 1.1 ± 0.1
BUN/Creatinine 15.6 ± 2.0 15.4 ± 1.4 14.6 ± 1.3 16.0 ± 1.7 15.4 ± 3.2 16.2 ± 3.7 13.6 ± 1.9 12.2 ± 1.4
Sodium (mmol·L-1) 138.4 ± 0.3 139.9 ± 0.6 139.3 ± 0.6 138.3 ± 0.8 137.2 ± 0.4 137.4 ± 0.6 138.8 ± 1.1 137.6 ± 1.3
Potassium (mmol·L-1) 4.5 ± 0.2 4.3 ± 0.2 4.3 ± 0.2 4.3 ± 0.2 4.4 ± 0.1 4.2 ± 0.1 4.1 ± 0.1 4.3 ± 0.1
Chloride (mmol·L-1)* 102.0 ± 0.4 103.1 ± 0.3 101.7 ± 0.9 101.9 ± 0.5 101.6 ± 0.9 101.6 ± 0.8 102.6 ± 1.4 102.2 ± 1.3
CO2 (mmol·L-1)* 26.7 ± 0.7 26.9 ± 0.6 26.7 ± 0.5 26.4 ± 0.7 26.0 ± 0.7 24.8 ± 0.7 26.2 ± 0.7 25.4 ± 0.5
Calcium (mg·dL-1)* 9.2 ± 0.2 9.3 ± 0.1 9.4 ± 0.1 9.4 ± 0.1 9.4 ± 0.1 9.2 ± 0.1 9.2 ± 0.1 9.3 ± 0.1
Protein (g·dL-1)†* 6.7 ± 0.1 6.6 ± 0.1 6.8 ± 0.1 6.8 ± 0.1 7.0 ± 0.2 6.9 ± 0.2 6.8 ± 0.1 6.7 ± 0.2
Albumin (g·dL-1) 4.3 ± 0.1 4.3 ± 0.1 4.4 ± 0.2 4.3 ± 0.1 4.5 ± 0.1 4.4 ± 0.2 4.3 ± 0.0 4.1 ± 0.1
Globulin (g·dL-1)†* 2.4 ± 0.2 2.4 ± 0.2 2.5 ± 0.2 2.5 ± 0.1 2.5 ± 0.1 2.5 ± 0.1 2.4 ± 0.1 2.6 ± 0.1
A/G Ratio†* 1.8 ± 0.1 1.9 ± 0.2 1.8 ± 0.1 1.7 ± 0.1 1.8 ± 0.1 1.8 ± 0.1 1.8 ± 0.1 1.6 ± 0.1
Bilirubin (mg·dL-1)** 0.7 ± 0.2 0.6 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.2
Alk Phos (IU·L-1)* 71.7 ± 6.7 71.6 ± 6.7 75.3 ± 6.7 73.4 ± 6.2 68.2 ± 9.6 68.0 ± 9.0 69.0 ± 8.9 65.6 ± 10.3
AST (SGOT) (IU·L-1)** 25.6 ± 1.8 24.9 ± 3.4 27.1 ± 2.9 25.0 ± 1.6 25.2 ± 2.9 30.8 ± 3.5 30.6 ± 3.6 30.6 ± 4.3
ALT (SGPT) (IU·L-1)** 23.7 ± 2.1 26.0 ± 3.0 26.4 ± 3.2 27.1 ± 4.4 25.6 ± 7.0 33.2 ± 11.8 39.4 ± 11.9 33.0 ± 7.7
B         
Variable Trained Women Ambrotose AO ® Pre Trained Women Ambrotose AO ® Post Trained Women Placebo Pre Trained Women Placebo Post Untrained Women Ambrotose AO ® Pre Untrained Women Ambrotose AO ® Post Untrained Women Placebo Pre Untrained Women Placebo Post
Glucose (mg·dL-1)** 86.1 ± 3.3 86.7 ± 1.9 88.1 ± 2.5 97.1 ± 10.3 84.6 ± 1.9 84.8 ± 2.5 86.0 ± 1.6 82.8 ± 2.7
BUN (mg·dL-1)†* 14.9 ± 1.9 15.7 ± 1.9 15.6 ± 2.2 17.1 ± 2.2 11.0 ± 1.3 11.2 ± 1.4 12.5 ± 1.9 12.5 ± 2.1
Creatinine (mg·dL-1)†* 1.0 ± 0.0 0.9 ± 0.0 1.0 ± 0.1 0.9 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.0 0.8 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.0
BUN/Creatinine 15.4 ± 2.1 16.6 ± 2.2 16.7 ± 2.7 19.1 ± 2.9 13.7 ± 1.6 14.5 ± 2.3 15.2 ± 2.5 15.3 ± 2.9
Sodium (mmol·L-1) 138.9 ± 0.7 138.4 ± 0.8 139.0 ± 0.9 138.0 ± 0.6 139.3 ± 0.8 138.3 ± 0.9 139.0 ± 0.9 138.3 ± 0.6
Potassium (mmol·L-1) 4.1 ± 0.1 4.1 ± 0.2 4.2 ± 0.1 4.3 ± 0.1 4.3 ± 0.1 4.1 ± 0.1 4.1 ± 0.1 4.4 ± 0.2
Chloride (mmol·L-1)* 103.1 ± 0.5 103.4 ± 0.8 103.6 ± 0.8 103.4 ± 1.0 102.6 ± 1.2 103.0 ± 0.9 103.7 ± 0.6 103.0 ± 0.5
CO2 (mmol·L-1)* 23.7 ± 0.8 24.4 ± 1.2 25.1 ± 1.0 24.4 ± 0.5 24.1 ± 1.1 24.0 ± 0.4 24.0 ± 0.3 24.0 ± 0.4
Calcium (mg·dL-1)* 9.6 ± 0.2 9.5 ± 0.2 9.5 ± 0.1 9.6 ± 0.1 9.4 ± 0.1 9.3 ± 0.1 9.4 ± 0.1 9.5 ± 0.1
Protein (g·dL-1)†* 7.0 ± 0.2 6.7 ± 0.2 6.9 ± 0.1 6.7 ± 0.2 7.1 ± 0.2 7.2 ± 0.1 7.4 ± 0.2 7.4 ± 0.2
Albumin (g·dL-1) 4.5 ± 0.1 4.2 ± 0.1 4.3 ± 0.1 4.2 ± 0.1 4.4 ± 0.1 4.3 ± 0.1 4.5 ± 0.1 4.4 ± 0.1
Globulin (g·dL-1)†* 2.5 ± 0.1 2.5 ± 0.1 2.6 ± 0.1 2.5 ± 0.1 2.8 ± 0.2 2.9 ± 0.1 2.9 ± 0.2 3.0 ± 0.2
A/G Ratio†* 1.8 ± 0.1 1.7 ± 0.0 1.7 ± 0.1 1.7 ± 0.1 1.6 ± 0.1 1.5 ± 0.1 1.6 ± 0.1 1.5 ± 0.1
Bilirubin (mg·dL-1)** 0.6 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1 0.7 ± 0.2 0.4 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.0 0.4 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1
Alk Phos (IU·L-1)* 55.4 ± 6.5 51.9 ± 5.1 56.0 ± 4.5 49.6 ± 4.6 53.1 ± 6.9 53.7 ± 5.2 56.2 ± 6.8 58.3 ± 7.8
AST (SGOT) (IU·L-1)** 25.4 ± 2.8 29.3 ± 5.8 20.3 ± 2.1 23.3 ± 1.1 19.6 ± 2.5 18.8 ± 1.6 21.3 ± 1.7 23.2 ± 3.2
ALT (SGPT) (IU·L-1)** 22.1 ± 3.1 24.3 ± 4.7 19.9 ± 2.4 19.1 ± 1.5 16.3 ± 3.6 13.7 ± 2.2 14.0 ± 1.2 18.8 ± 3.8
  1. Values are mean ± SEM.
  2. † Training status effect: BUN (p = 0.002); Creatinine (p < 0.0001); Protein (p = 0.001); Globulin (p = 0.003); A/G Ratio (p = 0.04)
  3. * Sex effect: BUN (p = 0.05); Creatinine (p = 0.002); Chloride (p = 0.008); CO2 (p < 0.0001); Calcium (p = 0.03); Protein (p = 0.002); Globulin (p = 0.006); A/G Ratio (p = 0.05); Alk Phos (p < 0.0001)
  4. ** Sex × training status effect: Glucose (p = 0.005); Bilirubin (p = 0.01); AST (p = 0.02); ALT (p = 0.01)
  5. No other statistically significant differences were noted (p > 0.05).