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Table 2 Associations between food consumption and perceived stress and depressive symptoms (each food group adjusted solely for country, separate models for males and females and for both mental health indicators)

From: Food consumption frequency and perceived stress and depressive symptoms among students in three European countries

  Perceived Stress score (PSS) Depressive Symptoms score (M-BDI)
  Female Male Female Male
Food group p-value Estimate* p-value Estimate* p-value Estimate* p-value Estimate*
Sweets 0.04 0.54 0.37 -0.31 0.27 0.59 0.10 -1.11
Cookies 0.13 0.48 0.46 -0.30 0.79 0.17 0.27 -0.89
Snacks 0.04 0.66 0.92 0.04 0.33 0.62 0.34 -0.76
Fast food 0.07 0.55 0.04 0.84 0.57 0.34 0.02 1.85
Fruits <0.001 -1.17 0.37 -0.32 0.002 -1.69 0.53 -0.45
Salads <0.001 -1.21 0.23 -0.48 <0.001 -2.55 0.25 -0.88
Vegetables 0.003 -0.82 0.97 -0.01 0.003 -1.62 0.29 0.77
Soft drinks 0.52 -0.14 0.60 0.17 0.05 -0.90 0.55 -0.36
Meat 0.03 -0.52 0.80 0.09 0.003 -1.47 0.24 -0.78
Fish <0.001 -1.32 0.75 -0.13 0.02 -1.60 0.90 0.10
Milk products 0.009 -0.72 0.34 -0.34 0.06 -1.07 0.08 -1.18
Cereal products 0.17 -0.33 0.17 -0.41 0.17 -0.67 0.07 -1.02
  1. * Change in the corresponding score (PSS or M-BDI) per one unit of the food group frequency scale