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Table 6 Risk of prevalent disease, by supplement user group.

From: Usage patterns, health, and nutritional status of long-term multiple dietary supplement users: a cross-sectional study

Outcome Cases: n/(%) ** OR* 95% CI*
Diabetes    
   Multiple Supp users 8/(2.9) 0.27 0.12–0.59
   Single Supp users 23/(11.1) 1.11 0.74–1.67
   No Supp users 70/(8.5) 1.00  
Coronary Heart Disease    
   Multiple Supp users 14/(5.0) 0.48 0.22–1.09
   Single Supp users 17/(7.1) 1.08 0.52–2.25
   No Supp users 47/(5.6) 1.00  
Heart Attack    
   Multiple Supp users 7/(2.5) 0.51 0.18–1.41
   Single Supp users 16/(7.6) 1.76 0.90–3.42
   No Supp users 44/(4.4) 1.00  
Angina    
   Multiple Supp users 6/(2.2) 0.41 0.14–1.18
   Single Supp users 12/(6.8) 1.71 0.82–3.59
   No Supp users 35/(4.7) 1.00  
Congestive Heart Failure    
   Multiple Supp users 4/(1.4) 0.73 0.18–2.95
   Single Supp users 9/(2.8) 0.88 0.26–2.97
   No Supp users 31/(3.5) 1.00  
Stroke    
   Multiple Supp users 5/(1.8) 1.42 0.39–5.17
   Single Supp users 6/(2.6) 1.26 0.34–4.67
   No Supp users 29/(2.5) 1.00  
Arthritis    
   Multiple Supp users 88/(31.7) 1.00 0.69–1.46
   Single Supp users 71/(31.8) 1.23 0.77–1.98
   No Supp users 189/(26.7) 1.00  
Emphysema    
   Multiple Supp users 3/(1.1) 0.55 0.09–3.41
   Single Supp users 4/(1.8) 0.73 0.32–1.64
   No Supp users 23/(2.3) 1.00  
Health Status    
   Multiple Supp users 44/(15.8) 0.26 0.17–0.41
   Single Supp users 86/(44.4) 0.75 0.45–1.23
   No Supp users 302/(50.9) 1.00  
  1. * Logistic regression methods were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for sex, age and age2, education, income and income2, and body mass index. The referent group for risk estimation was the No Supp group.
  2. ** Number of events, weighted percent
  3. Self-assessed as 'good, fair, or poor' versus 'excellent or very good.'