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Table 1 Anthropometric, behavioural and dietary characteristics of plausible and underreporters

From: Dietary factors associated with obesity indicators and level of sports participation in Flemish adults: a cross-sectional study

  Men Women
  Plausible Underreport Plausible Underreport
  n = 485 n = 382 n = 362 n = 291
Age (y) 50.2 ± 13.3 47.2 ± 13.6** 51.4 ± 12.9 44.2 ± 12.3***
BMI (kg/m2) 25.4 ± 3.1 26.6 ± 3.3*** 24.1 ± 3.5 25.6 ± 4.4***
WC (cm) 89.5 ± 9.6 92.5 ± 10.5*** 78.2 ± 9.4 80.5 ± 10.7**
Sum6SKF (mm) 76.0 ± 29.2 90.3 ± 31.7*** 124.6 ± 38.6 139.5 ± 42.5***
Tsports (h/week) 3.8 ± 4.5 3.2 ± 3.7* 2.3 ± 3.2 1.9 ± 2.5
PAL (MET) 1.8 ± 0.3 1.7 ± 0.2* 1.7 ± 0.18 1.7 ± 0.15
Ttv (h/week) 14.9 ± 8.2 15.3 ± 9.1 14.6 ± 8.8 13.4 ± 8.6
BMI groups (%)   P < 0.001   P < 0.001
< 25 kg/m2 46.4% 33.8% 65.5% 52.6%
25–30 kg/m2 46.6% 51.3% 29.6% 31.6%
≥30 kg/m2 7.0% 14.9% 5.0% 15.8%
WC groups (%)   P < 0.001   N.S
< 94 or < 80 cm 68.7% 54.7% 61.3% 56.0%
94–102 or 80–88 cm 22.5% 28.8% 24.6% 23.0%
≥102 or 88 cm 8.9% 16.5% 14.1% 21.0%
Education (%)   N.S   N.S
Low 4.9% 4.5% 6.1% 5.8%
Moderate 44.5% 38.0% 42.0% 36.8%
High 50.5% 57.6% 51.9% 57.4%
Smoking (%)   N.S   N.S
Never 57.8% 56.8% 72.6% 71.7%
Former 29.5% 29.3% 15.8% 13.0%
Current 12.7% 13.9% 11.6% 15.2%
Ca (mg/d) 990.6 ± 524.7 692.9 ± 318.2*** 870.3 ± 339.4 688.4 ± 324.9***
Fe (mg/d) 16.1 ± 4.7 12.0 ± 3.7*** 13.3 ± 5.1 10.1 ± 3.4***
Total EI (kcal/d) 2782.0 ± 431.5 1916.1 ± 348.9*** 2171.1 ± 348.1 1549.5 ± 279.4***
Protein     
   (kcal/d) 425.0 ± 103.9 320.3 ± 78.9*** 345.9 ± 78.8 268.2 ± 78.4***
   (%E) 15.3 ± 3.0 16.8 ± 3.4*** 16.0 ± 3.0 17.5 ± 5.2***
Carbohydrate     
   (kcal/d) 1282.7 ± 286.5 873.3 ± 206.1*** 961.2 ± 199.4 716.9 ± 172.2***
   (%E) 46.1 ± 7.6 45.8 ± 7.8 44.4 ± 6.8 46.4 ± 8.1**
Sugar (kcal/d)     
   (kcal/d) 293.5 ± 167.5 187.7 ± 109.9*** 199.3 ± 103.6 163.7 ± 93.9***
   (%E) 10.5 ± 5.6 9.9 ± 5.7 9.3 ± 4.8 10.5 ± 6.5**
Starch     
   (kcal/d) 675.4 ± 207.9 469.9 ± 144.6*** 486.3 ± 142.3 362.3 ± 110.5***
   (%E) 24.3 ± 6.5 24.6 ± 6.7 22.5 ± 5.7 23.6 ± 6.5*
Fibre     
   (kcal/d) 91.0 ± 28.9 64.9 ± 20.8*** 74.3 ± 21.1 56.1 ± 17.7***
   (%E) 3.3 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 1.2*
Fat     
   (kcal/d) 951.2 ± 268.0 628.5 ± 194.9*** 779.3 ± 212.3 519.8 ± 176.3***
   (%E) 34.0 ± 6.8 32.4 ± 7.1** 35.6 ± 6.6 33.1 ± 8.3***
Saturated fat     
   (kcal/d) 364.2 ± 114.3 240.5 ± 82.0*** 265.2 ± 109.4 296.2 ± 199.5***
   (%E) 13.0 ± 3.2 12.4 ± 3.2** 13.5 ± 3.1 12.7 ± 3.6**
Monounsaturated     
   (kcal/d) 361.4 ± 119.5 237.9 ± 83.9*** 294.4 ± 100.2 196.4 ± 79.6***
   (%E) 12.9 ± 3.3 12.3 ± 3.4** 13.4 ± 3.6 12.5 ± 4.2**
Polyunsaturated     
   (kcal/d) 161.0 ± 71.4 108.9 ± 50.6*** 130.2 ± 65.1 86.3 ± 44.3***
   (%E) 5.7 ± 2.2 5.6 ± 2.3 6.0 ± 2.8 5.5 ± 2.5*
Alcohol     
   (kcal/d) 123.2 ± 125.8 93.91 ± 105.122*** 84.7 ± 106.0 44.7 ± 67.1***
   (%E) 4.6 ± 4.7 5.0 ± 5.7 3.9 ± 4.8 2.9 ± 4.5**
Ca (mg/d) 990.6 ± 524.7 692.9 ± 318.2*** 870.3 ± 339.4 688.4 ± 324.9***
Fe (mg/d) 16.1 ± 4.7 12.0 ± 3.7*** 13.3 ± 5.1 10.1 ± 3.4***
Cholesterol (mg) 104.3 ± 39.0 106.8 ± 45.8 105.3 ± 39.2 109.3 ± 46.1
  1. * Underreporters differ significantly (P < 0.05) from plausible reporters of the same sex
  2. ** Underreporters differ significantly (P < 0.01) from plausible reporters of the same sex
  3. *** Underreporters differ significantly (P < 0.001) from plausible reporters of the same sex