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Table 2 Prospective Nested Case Control Studies of Selenium and Prostate Cancer.

From: Nutrition and cancer: A review of the evidence for an anti-cancer diet

Reference Study # Cases # Controls Outcomes Comment
[189] Physicians Health Study 586 577 ↑Se = ↓risk of advance prostate cancer (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.28–0.98) Result only in men with PSA ≥ 4 ng/mL
[190] Netherlands Cohort Study 540 1,211 ↑Se = ↓risk prostate cancer (OR for quintiles of Se = 1.0, 1.05, 0.69, 0.75, 0.69; 95% CI = 0.48–0.99) Results greatest in ex-smokers
[191] Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging 52 96 ↑Se = ↓risk prostate cancer (OR for quartiles of Se = 1.0, 0.15, 0.21, 0.24  
[192] Washington County, Maryland 117 233 Top 4/5 of Se had reduction in prostate cancer risk; statistically significant result for Se only when γtocopherol levels were high Men in top quintile of serum γtocopherol had 5-fold reduced risk of prostate cancer compared to lowest quintile
[193] Health Professional Follow-up Study 181 181 ↑Se = ↓risk of advanced prostate cancer Adjusted OR = 0.35 (95% CI = 0.16–0.78)
[194] Prospective study    ↑Se = ↓risk of gastrointestinal and prostate cancer Results not statistically significant