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Table 4 Associations between dietary animal and plant protein intakes (g/d and E%) and body composition of adolescents participating in the HELENA-CSS (n = 1804)

From: Dietary animal and plant protein intakes and their associations with obesity and cardio-metabolic indicators in European adolescents: the HELENA cross-sectional study

Dependent variables μ Animal protein (g/d) Plant protein (g/d)
  β SE 95% CI P β SE 95% CI P
 BMI z-score         
Model 1 0.001 0.001 -0.001, 0.004 0.206 -0.002 0.002 -0.006, 0.002 0.414
Model 2 0.003 0.001 0.000, 0.006 0.023 0.000 0.002 -0.005, 0.004 0.847
Model 3 -0.000002 0.000001 -0.000007, 0.000 0.421 -0.012 0.005 -0.023, -0.001 0.027
 Body fat (%)         
Model 1 -0.054 0.009 -0.071, -0.036 <0.001 -0.162 0.016 -0.194, -0.131 <0.001
Model 2 -0.009 0.010 -0.030, 0.011 0.386 -0.106 0.019 -0.144, -0.069 <0.001
Model 3 -0.000052 0.000018 -0.000087, - 0.000016 0.004 -0.139 0.040 -0.217, -0.060 0.001
  Animal protein (E%) Plant protein (E%)
 BMI z-score         
Model 1 0.021 0.008 0.005, 0.038 0.011 0.012 0.019 -0.026, 0.050 0.533
Model 2 0.021 0.008 0.005, 0.037 0.011 0.008 0.020 -0.031, 0.046 0.692
Model 3 0.024 0.009 0.006, 0.043 0.010 -0.027 0.021 -0.067, 0.013 0.188
 Body fat (%)         
Model 1 0.209 0.067 0.077, 0.341 0.002 0.124 0.156 -0.181, 0.429 0.426
Model 2 0.196 0.065 0.068, 0.325 0.003 -0.179 0.154 -0.482, 0.123 0.245
Model 3 0.168 0.070 0.030, 0.305 0.017 -0.229 0.151 -0.526, 0.068 0.130
  1. SE, standard error of coefficient β; CI, confidence interval.
  2. μModel 1, unadjusted; model 2, adjusted for fat intake; model 3, model 2 further adjusted for age, sex, tanner stage, physical activity, country cluster, and interactions between potential confounding factors and animal / plant protein (separate model).