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Table 1 Breakfast characteristics*

From: A randomized crossover, pilot study examining the effects of a normal protein vs. high protein breakfast on food cravings and reward signals in overweight/obese “breakfast skipping”, late-adolescent girls

  Breakfast skipping (BS) Normal protein (NP) High protein (HP)
Energy content 0 350 350
Mass (g) 0 270 265
Energy density (kcal/g) 0 1.33 ± 0.01 1.37 ± 0.03
Total protein (g) (% of meal) 0 13.0 (15%) 35.1 (40%)
Egg (g) 0 0 11.0
Beef (g) 0 0 11.0
Dairy (g) 0 7.0 7.0
Gluten (g) 0 6.0 6.0
Tyrosine (g) 0 0.55 1.34
Total carbohydrate (g) (% of meal) 0 57.0 (65%) 35.1 (40%)
Sugar (g) 0 18.0 18.0
Fiber (g) 0 6.1 6.1
Total fat (g) (% of meal) 0 7.8 (20%) 7.8 (20%)
  1. *Excluding the 8 oz. water that was provided along with the breakfast meal.