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Table 2 Comparison of mean crude energy intakes and energy-adjusted nutrient intakes estimated by the 16-day DR, and the DHQ administered in each season among 92 men

From: Effect of seasonality on the estimated mean value of nutrients and ranking ability of a self-administered diet history questionnaire

  Men (n = 92)
DR IQR Fall* Winter* Spring* Summer*
Energy, kJ/day 9804 8709-10756 9300* 9768 8085*** 8889**
Protein, % energy 14.2 13.2-15.2 12.9*** 12.9*** 13.1*** 12.7***
Fat, % energy 24.6 22.5-27.7 23.2* 23.7 26.6* 25.5
Saturated fat, % energy 6.68 5.88-7.62 5.97*** 6.15*** 7.04 6.93
Monounsaturated fat, % energy 8.72 7.69-10.2 8.28* 8.47 9.89*** 9.36**
Polyunsaturated fat, % energy 5.68 5.10-6.36 5.61 5.64 6.34** 6.02*
n-3 Polyunsaturated fat, % energy 1.13 0.96-1.28 1.11 1.10 1.29** 1.25**
n-6 Polyunsaturated fat, % energy 4.52 3.98-5.14 4.52 4.57 5.09*** 4.81*
Marine-origin n-3 polyunsaturated fat, % energy 0.44 0.32-0.55 0.36*** 0.35*** 0.41 0.42
Eicosapentaenoic acid, % energy 0.15 0.11-0.19 0.13** 0.12*** 0.14 0.14
Docosahexaenoic acid, % energy 0.25 0.18-0.31 0.21*** 0.20*** 0.23 0.24
α-Linolenic acid, % energy 0.62 0.54-0.71 0.70*** 0.70** 0.82*** 0.77***
Cholesterol, mg/10 MJ 400 349-464 361** 362** 422 417
Carbohydrate, % energy 53.7 50.8-57.8 54.4 53.0 43.0*** 42.4***
Total dietary fiber, g/10 MJ 15.5 12.8-18.7 13.7*** 13.2*** 11.3*** 11.2***
Soluble dietary fiber, g/10 MJ 3.35 2.74-4.05 3.18 3.11** 2.75*** 2.89***
Insoluble dietary fiber, g/10 MJ 11.4 9.39-13.8 10.0*** 9.62*** 8.03*** 7.89***
Alcohol, % energy 3.40 0.82-9.13 3.75 3.87 7.38*** 9.63***
Retinol, μg/10 MJ 293 179-341 241 254 345 351
Vitamin A 633 460-777 521** 511** 646 645
(retinol equivalent), μg/10 MJ
α-Carotene, μg/10 MJ 418 320-583 221*** 202*** 237*** 210***
β-Carotene, μg/10 MJ 3104 2490-4170 2291*** 2066*** 2657* 2639**
β-Carotene equivalent§, μg/10 MJ 3522 2884-4665 2659*** 2381*** 2924** 2857***
Cryptoxanthin, μg/10 MJ 232 130-458 317** 249 139*** 97.4***
α-Tocopherol, mg/10 MJ 8.37 7.51-9.32 8.23 8.28 9.53*** 9.46***
Vitamin K, μg/10 MJ 241 185-313 250 241 279*** 236
Thiamin, mg/10 MJ 1.09 1.00-1.18 0.95*** 0.94*** 0.96*** 0.94***
Riboflavin, mg/10 MJ 1.51 1.32-1.70 1.45 1.41** 1.92*** 1.88***
Niacin, mg/10 MJ 21.4 19.4-23.4 19.7** 19.5*** 28.1*** 30.0***
Vitamin B6, mg/10 MJ 1.49 1.34-1.64 1.37*** 1.32*** 1.86*** 1.97***
Vitamin B12, μg/10 MJ 9.25 6.82-12.3 8.66 8.83 10.6** 10.7**
Folate, μg/10 MJ 392 327-479 319*** 309*** 412 404
Pantothenic acid, mg/10 MJ 7.12 6.39-7.71 6.79** 6.66*** 7.46** 7.49***
Vitamin C, mg/10 MJ 112 88.1-154 108 92.9*** 105 101*
Sodium, mg/10 MJ 5000 4571-5592 4750* 4621** 4630** 4451***
Potassium, mg/10 MJ 2937 2635-3290 2582*** 2448*** 3019 3138***
Calcium, mg/10 MJ 585 493-733 503*** 495*** 601 572
Magnesium, mg/10 MJ 315 281-365 288*** 287*** 356*** 365***
Phosphorus, mg/10 MJ 1267 1149-1380 1159*** 1154*** 1331** 1323**
Iron, mg/10 MJ 9.25 8.10-10.5 7.74*** 7.64*** 7.76*** 7.34***
Zinc, mg/10 MJ 9.94 9.15-10.8 9.44** 9.51** 8.39*** 7.97***
Copper, mg/10 MJ 1.42 1.26-1.54 1.31*** 1.30*** 1.08*** 1.06***
Manganese, mg/10 MJ 4.27 3.63-5.07 4.58* 4.23 3.96 3.76**
  1. Abbreviations: DR = semi-weighed 16-day dietary records; DHQ = self-administered diet history questionnaire; IQR = interquartile range.
  2. All variables were log-transformed before analysis. Means were back-transformed.
  3. *The periods in which the DHQs were administered in each season were as follows: Fall = November or December 2002, Winter = February 2003, Spring = May 2003, Summer = August or September 2003.
  4. Sum of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid.
  5. Sum of retinol, β-carotene/12, α-carotene/24, and cryptoxanthin/24.
  6. §Sum of β-carotene, α-carotene/2, and cryptoxanthin/2.
  7. Significant difference from the DR: *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 (paired t-test).