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Table 2 Acute effects of the type of dietary fats on inflammatory response in obese or overweight individuals

From: Modulation of obesity-induced inflammation by dietary fats: mechanisms and clinical evidence

Subjects: n (F/M) Postprandial duration Test meal Inflammatory response in overweight/obese individuals Remarks References
Overweight: 13 (-/13) 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 min, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 h SFA: 56.6 g fat (33.9 g SFA)
2 muffins with butter and 250 ml water
IL-6, TNF-α, sVCAM-1: SFA ↑, PUFA ↓
MCP-1: ↓ over time; NS sICAM-1: = ; NS
Small sample size [67]
   n-6 PUFA: 60.5 g fat (12.9 g SFA, 21.8 g PUFA)
2 muffins with 40 g butter and 10 g margarine, and 250 ml water
   
   A low fat lunch was served after 3 h    
Lean: 14 (14/-) Obese: 15 (15/-) 0, 1, 4, 6 h SFA: 71 g fat (18 g palmitate)
Instant potato with 16 g cream/kg body weight, 100 ml hot water
IL-6: ↓ at 1 h, ↑ at 6 h; NS
IL-8, TNF-α: =; NS
Timing of menstrual cycle and oral contraceptive usage were not taken into account [16]
   MUFA: 72 g fat (9 g palmitate)
Instant potato with 0.6 g/kg body weight of olive oil, 160 ml hot water
  Subjects with hypertension and dyslipidemia were included  
   n-6 PUFA:72 g fat (5 g palmitate ) Instant potato with 0.6 g/kg body weight of canola oil, 160 ml hot water   Test meals were not iso-caloric
Small sample size
 
   LFM–potato: 12 g fat (3 g palmitate)
Instant potato, 160 ml hot water.
   
   LFM – bran: 13 g fat (3 g palmitate)
All-Bran, 40 ml trim milk, and 2 cooked eggs
   
   *test meals for obese subjects only    
Lean: 18 (-/18) Obese: 18 (-/18) 0, 2, 4 h SFA: 95 g fat (51 g SFA)
Shakes containing low fat yogurt, low fat milk, strawberry flavor, sugar and 95 g palm oil
IL-8: ↑ over time; NS
IL-6: ↓ over time; NS
CRP: =; NS
Short postprandial period
Small sample size
[61]
   MUFA: 95 g fat (8 g SFA)
Shakes containing low fat yogurt, low fat milk, strawberry flavor, sugar and 95 g high oleic sunflower oil
   
   n-3 PUFA: 95 g fat (32 g SFA)
Shakes containing low fat yogurt, low fat milk, strawberry flavor, sugar and 40 g palm oil + 55 g Marinol D40 (40% DHA).
   
Lean: 18 (-/18) Obese: 18 (-/18) Obese diabetic: 6 (-/6) 0, 2, 4 h SFA: 95 g fat (51 g SFA)
Shakes containing low fat yogurt, low fat milk, strawberry flavor, sugar and 95 g palm oil
IL-1β and TNF-α: =; NS
PBMC MCP-1 and IL-8: MUFA and n-3 PUFA ↑↑, SFA ↑ at 4 h
Short postprandial period
Small sample size
[70]
   MUFA: 95 g fat (8 g SFA)
Shakes containing low fat yogurt, low fat milk, strawberry flavor, sugar and 95 g high oleic sunflower oil
   
   n-3 PUFA: 95 g fat (32 g SFA)
Shakes containing low fat yogurt, low fat milk, strawberry flavor, sugar and 40 g palm oil + 55 g Marinol D40 (40% DHA)
   
Obese/overweight: 10 (6/4) 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 h SFA: 83 g fat
Refined palm oil blended with 1% milk, strawberry flavored syrup, low fat frozen, and non-fat dry milk powder.
CRP: ↑; over time NS
TNF-α: ↓ over time; NS
NF-κB AUC (4 h): PUFA ↑↑, SFA↑
VCAM-1: =; NS
ICAM-1: =; MUFA ↓↓ vs. SFA, n-3 PUFA
Small sample size
Test meals were not iso-caloric
[71]
   MUFA: 83 g fat
Refined olive oil blended with 1% milk, strawberry flavored syrup, low fat frozen, and non-fat dry milk powder.
   
   n-3 PUFA: 85 g fat
Refined olive oil + 4 g n-3FA from 8 g fish oil supplement pills (300 mg EPA, 200 mg DHA/g), blended with 1% milk, strawberry flavored syrup, low fat frozen, and non-fat dry milk powder.
   
  1. LFM, low fat meal; SFA, saturated fats; MUFA, monounsaturated fats; PUFA, polyunsaturated fats; % en, percentage energy; IL, interleukin; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor- alpha; sICAM-1, soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1; sVCAM-1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1; TAG, triacylglycerols; MCP-1, monochemoattractant protein-1; PBMC, peripheral blood mononuclear cells AUC, area under the curve; ↓, reduced postprandial concentrations; ↑, increased postprandial concentrations; =, no postprandial/after meal effect; ↑↑, higher postprandial increment compared to other meals; NS, no significant difference between meals.