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Table 3 Coefficients from multiple regression analysis between dietary B vitamins intake and neuropsychological test scores according to AD, MCI and normal groups

From: Association between intake of B vitamins and cognitive function in elderly Koreans with cognitive impairment

Dietary Intakes   MMSE-KC Boston naming test Verbal fluency Word list memory Word list recall Word list recognition Constructional recall Constructional praxis
All (n = 321)   20.6 ± 5.9 8.4 ± 3.5 9.4 ± 4.7 11.5 ± 5.5 3.1 ± 2.5 6.5 ± 3.0 3.7 ± 3.2 7.9 ± 2.7
 Vitamin B2 (mg/d) β (SE) 0.816 (0.702) 0.256 (0.451) 0.577 (0.645) 1.218 (0.670) 0.175 (0.332) 0.434 (0.428) 1.066 (0.419) 0.373 (0.341)
p- value 0.246 0.571 0.371 0.070 0.599 0.312 0.012 0.275
 Vitamin B6 (mg/d) β (SE) 0.321 (0.799) 1.039 (0.510) 0.443 (0.734) 1.581 (0.760) 0.330 (0.378) 0.666 (0.486) 0.737 (0.480) −0.059 (0.388)
p-value 0.688 0.043 0.547 0.038 0.382 0.172 0.126 0.879
 Vitamin B12 (μg/d) β (SE) 0.177 (0.184) 0.023 (0.117) 0.045 (0.169) 0.293 (0.174) 0.043 (0.087) 0.082 (0.112) 0.094 (0.111) 0.121 (0.090)
p-value 0.338 0.841 0.792 0.093 0.620 0.467 0.398 0.179
 Folate (μg DFE/d) β (SE) 0.953 (0.577) 0.157 (0.372) 0.249 (0.533) 1.095 (0.552) 0.263 (0.274) 0.395 (0.353) 0.848 (0.346) −0.136 (0.282)
p-value 0.100 0.674 0.641 0.048 0.338 0.264 0.015 0.630
AD (n = 100)
 Vitamin B2 (mg/d) β (SE) −0.734 (1.078) 0.185 (0.875) 0.406 (1.030) −0.876 (1.046) −0.015 (0.380) −0.660 (0.897) 0.188 (0.438) 0.086 (0.717)
p-value 0.498 0.833 0.694 0.405 0.969 0.464 0.669 0.905
 Vitamin B6 (mg/d) β (SE) 0.427 (1.109) 0.863 (0.894) 0.900 (1.054) 0.638 (1.077) 0.415 (0.387) 0.292 (0.924) 0.472 (0.447) 0.597 (0.733)
p-value 0.701 0.337 0.395 0.555 0.287 0.753 0.294 0.418
 Vitamin B12 (μg/d) β (SE) 0.481 (0.268) 0.269 (0.216) 0.285 (0.261) 0.375 (0.261) 0.063 (0.087) 0.086 (0.226) 0.162 (0.107) 0.325 (0.180)
p-value 0.077 0.216 0.278 0.154 0.472 0.705 0.135 0.075
 Folate (μg DFE/d) β (SE) −0.457 (0.829) −0.689 (0.669) 0.168 (0.792) −0.368 (0.807) 0.237 (0.291) −0.547 (0.689) 0.394 (0.334) −0.814 (0.544)
p-value 0.583 0.306 0.832 0.649 0.417 0.430 0.242 0.138
MCI (n = 100)
 Vitamin B2 (mg/d) β (SE) 1.705 (1.089) 0.517 (0.762) 1.082 (1.027) 2.293 (1.145) 0.704 (0.575) 1.461 (0.682) 1.380 (0.684) 1.133 (0.587)
p-value 0.121 0.499 0.295 0.048 0.224 0.035 0.047 0.057
 Vitamin B6 (mg/d) β (SE) −0.006 (1.251) 0.583 (0.863) −0.779 (1.168) 0.781 (1.323) 0.172 (0.657) 1.083 (0.784) 1.205 (0.782) −0.454 (0.677)
p-value 0.996 0.502 0.506 0.557 0.794 0.171 0.127 0.504
 Vitamin B12 (μg/d) β (SE) −0.310 (0.261) −0.236 (0.187) 0.139 (0.252) 0.078 (0.269) −0.055 (0.139) 0.168 (0.168) −0.026 (0.172) −0.094 (0.148)
p-value 0.238 0.209 0.582 0.772 0.691 0.319 0.879 0.529
 Folate (μg DFE/d) β (SE) 1.817 (0.933) 0.193 (0.659) 0.868 (0.887) 2.137 (0.984) 0.662 (0.495) 1.388 (0.586) 1.022 (0.594) 0.092 (0.517)
p-value 0.055 0.770 0.330 0.033 0.185 0.020 0.089 0.859
Normal (n = 121)
 Vitamin B2 (mg/d) β (SE) 0.020 (0.904) −0.730 (0.699) −0.551 (1.133) 1.215 (1.077) −0.436 (0.573) 0.339 (0.554) 0.532 (0.807) −0.100 (0.517)
p-value2) 0.983 0.298 0.628 0.262 0.448 0.541 0.511 0.847
 Vitamin B6 (mg/d) β (SE) −0.460 (1.032) 1.434 (0.791) 0.544 (1.295) 2.484 (1.215) 0.047 (0.656) 0.627 (0.631) −0.789 (0.921) −0.474 (0.589)
p-value 0.657 0.073 0.675 0.043 0.943 0.323 0.394 0.423
 Vitamin B12 (μg/d) β (SE) 0.139 (0.259) −0.083 (0.194) −0.620 (0.316) 0.212 (0.309) 0.063 (0.163) −0.146 (0.156) 0.038 (0.230) 0.213 (0.145)
p-value 0.593 0.670 0.052 0.495 0.700 0.351 0.870 0.146
 Folate (μg DFE/d) β (SE) 0.480 (0.741) 0.074 (0.576) −1.373 (0.922) 0.630 (0.887) −0.550 (0.468) −0.230 (0.455) 0.067 (0.664) 0.262 (0.424)
p-value 0.518 0.898 0.139 0.479 0.242 0.615 0.920 0.538
  1. Data on intake and plasma level are log transformed. Adjusted for age, gender, BMI, marital status, education, current smoking, energy intake (ln), thyroid disease and vascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, stroke and cardiovascular disease).