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Table 2 Properties of thickening agents used in the treatment of dysphagia

From: Thickening agents used for dysphagia management: effect on bioavailability of water, medication and feelings of satiety

Thickener Solubility Ionic charge
Xanthan gum (polysaccharide ) Water soluble Highly negative charge (anionic)
Guar gum (carbohydrate – galactomannan – manose to galactose ratio 2:1) Water soluble Neutral
Locust bean gum (galactomannan – manose to galactose ratio 4:1) Water soluble Neutral
Starch (polysaccharide) Water soluble Neutral
Carageenan (sulphated linear polysaccharide) Water soluble Negative charge (anionic)